24. Pricing in Bertrand competition with increasing marginal costs
Bertrand competition under decreasing returns involves a wide interval of pure strategy Nash equilibrium prices. We first present results of experiments in which two, three and four identical firms repeatedly interact in this environment. More firms lead to lower average prices. However, prices remain substantially above the Walrasian level. With more than two firms the predominant market price is 24, a price not predicted by conventional equilibrium theories. This phenomenon can be captured by a simple imitation model and by a focal point explanation. For the long run, the model predicts that prices converge to the Walrasian outcome. We then use data from three new treatments to properly test the influence of imitation and focality. We find that both forces are present, but that imitation dominates in large markets with a long interaction.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Morgan, John & Orzen, Henrik & Sefton, Martin, 2006. "An experimental study of price dispersion," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 134-158, January.
- Theo Offerman & Jan Potters & Joep Sonnemans, 1997.
"Imitation and Belief Learning in an Oligopoly Experiment,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
97-116/1, Tinbergen Institute.
- Theo Offerman & Jan Potters & Joep Sonnemans, 2002. "Imitation and Belief Learning in an Oligopoly Experiment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(4), pages 973-997.
- Offerman, T.J.S. & Potters, J.J.M. & Sonnemans, J., 2002. "Imitation and belief learning in an oligopoly experiment," Other publications TiSEM a6a771c5-31ba-4193-8f76-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- John C. Harsanyi & Reinhard Selten, 1988. "A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262582384.
- Huck, Steffen & Normann, Hans-Theo & Oechssler, Jorg, 2000.
"Does information about competitors' actions increase or decrease competition in experimental oligopoly markets?,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 39-57, January.
- Steffen Huck & Hans-Theo Normann & Joerg Oechssler, 1998. "Does information about competitors' actions increase or decrease competition in experimental oligopoly markets?," Industrial Organization 9803004, EconWPA.
- Dastidar, Krishnendu Ghosh, 1995. "On the Existence of Pure Strategy Bertrand Equilibrium," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 5(1), pages 19-32, January.
- Stegeman, Mark & Rhode, Paul, 2004. "Stochastic Darwinian equilibria in small and large populations," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 171-214, October.
- John B Van Huyck & Raymond C Battalio & Richard O Beil, 1997.
"Tacit coordination games, strategic uncertainty, and coordination failure,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
1225, David K. Levine.
- Van Huyck, John B & Battalio, Raymond C & Beil, Richard O, 1990. "Tacit Coordination Games, Strategic Uncertainty, and Coordination Failure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 234-248, March.
- J. B. Van Huyck & R. C. Battalio & R. O. Beil, 2010. "Tacit coordination games, strategic uncertainty, and coordination failure," Levine's Working Paper Archive 661465000000000393, David K. Levine.
- Ana B. Ania & Carlos Alós-Ferrer & Klaus R. Schenk-Hoppé, 1998.
"- An Evolutionary Model Of Bertrand Oligopoly,"
Working Papers. Serie AD
1998-14, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Abbink, Klaus & Abdolkarim Sadrieh, 1995. "RatImage - research Assistance Toolbox for Computer-Aided Human Behavior Experiments," Discussion Paper Serie B 325, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Crawford, Vincent P, 1995.
"Adaptive Dynamics in Coordination Games,"
Econometric Society, vol. 63(1), pages 103-143, January.
- Steffen Huck & Hans-Theo Normann & Joerg Oechssler, 1997.
"Learning in Cournot Oligopoly - An Experiment,"
Game Theory and Information
9707009, EconWPA, revised 22 Jul 1997.
- Roth, Alvin E. & Erev, Ido, 1995. "Learning in extensive-form games: Experimental data and simple dynamic models in the intermediate term," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 164-212.
- Brown-Kruse, Jamie, et al, 1994. "Bertrand-Edgeworth Competition in Experimental Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(2), pages 343-372, March.
- Herings, P.J.J. & van den Elzen, A.H., 1998.
"Computation of the Nash Equilibrium Selected by the Tracing Procedure in N-Person Games,"
1998-04, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Herings, P. Jean-Jacques & van den Elzen, Antoon, 2002. "Computation of the Nash Equilibrium Selected by the Tracing Procedure in N-Person Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 89-117, January.
- Fernando Vega-Redondo, 1997.
"The Evolution of Walrasian Behavior,"
Econometric Society, vol. 65(2), pages 375-384, March.
- Brandts, Jordi & Holt, Charles A, 1992. "An Experimental Test of Equilibrium Dominance in Signaling Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1350-1365, December.
- Dufwenberg, Martin & Gneezy, Uri, 2000.
"Price competition and market concentration: an experimental study,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 7-22, January.
- Dufwenberg, Martin & Gneezy, Uri, 1998. "Price Competition and Market Concentration: An Experimental Study," Working Paper Series 1998:8, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
- Dufwenberg, M. & Gneezy, U., 1998. "Price Competition and Market COncentration: An Experimental Study," Papers 1998-08, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Dufwenberg, Martin & Gneezy, Uri, 1999. "Price Competition and Market Concentration: An experimental Study," Research Papers in Economics 1999:4, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
- Huck, Steffen & Normann, Hans-Theo & Oechssler, Jorg, 2004.
"Two are few and four are many: number effects in experimental oligopolies,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 435-446, April.
- Steffen Huck & Hans-Theo Normann & Jörg Oechssler, 2001. "Two are Few and Four are Many: Number Effects in Experimental Oligopolies," Bonn Econ Discussion Papers bgse12_2001, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Antoni Bosch-DomËnech & Nicolaas J. Vriend, 2003.
"Imitation of successful behaviour in cournot markets,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(487), pages 495-524, 04.
- Antoni Bosch-Domènech & Nicolaas J. Vriend, 1998. "Imitation of succesful behavior in Cournot markets," Economics Working Papers 269, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised May 1999.
- Robin P. Cubitt & Robert Sugden, 1998. "The Selection of Preferences Through Imitation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 761-771.
- Selten, Reinhard & Apesteguia, Jose, 2005.
"Experimentally observed imitation and cooperation in price competition on the circle,"
Games and Economic Behavior,
Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 171-192, April.
- Reinhard Selten & Jose Apesteguia, 2002. "Experimentally Observed Imitation and Cooperation in Price Competition on the Circle," Bonn Econ Discussion Papers bgse19_2002, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Fernando Vega-Redondo, 1999. "Markets under bounded rationality: from theory to facts," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 23(1), pages 3-26, January.
- Douglas D. Davis & Charles A. Holt, 1994. "Market Power and Mergers in Laboratory Markets with Posted Prices," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(3), pages 467-487, Autumn.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:gamebe:v:63:y:2008:i:1:p:1-31. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.