Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies
Globally, 1.5 billion people lack access to electricity and nearly 3 billion lack access to modern cooking energy options. Of the world’s “energy poor”, 95% are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Within Asia, almost 80% of electricity-deprived and 86% of biomass-dependent populations are in the “Big 5” countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. In this paper, we discuss the broad contours of the political economy of energy access in these countries. The political economy is assessed through an examination of three sustainability objectives: accessibility of physical infrastructure; energy service delivery; and conformance to social goals. The key areas of concern include emphasis on supply-driven grid electricity; vested power dynamics favouring affluent and urban areas; unreliability of energy service provision; and misdirected and misappropriated subsidies. The above-mentioned issues are responsible for limiting accelerated achievement of universal energy access in the “Big 5” countries and need to be addressed through innovative approaches. The paper emphasizes the need for firm commitments, policy convergence, and the implementation of 'pro-poor' equitable energy policies through a broad-based energy framework of bench-marked, technology-neutral energy provisioning that ensures reliability and equity. It highlights the need for reorienting of the subsidy regime and incorporating energy service delivery indicators in monitoring and reporting mechanisms.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis & Ramaswami, Bharat & Wadhwa, Wilima, 2005. "Reducing subsidies on household fuels in India: how will it affect the poor?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(18), pages 2326-2336, December.
- Li, Yuming & Zhong, Maosen, 2005. "Consumption habit and international stock returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 579-601, March.
- Ettore Damiano & Hao Li, 2007.
"Price discrimination and efficient matching,"
Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 30(2), pages 243-263, February.
- Wuyuan Peng & Jiahua Pan, 2006. "Rural Electrification in China: History and Institution," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 14(1), pages 71-84.
- ., 2005. "Subsidiary Power in the Embedded Multinational," Chapters, in: Managing the Embedded Multinational, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Alexandra Niez, 2010. "Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies: Keys to successful policies," IEA Energy Papers 2010/3, OECD Publishing.
- ., 2005. "National Budgets and the EU Budget," Chapters, in: Fiscal Policy in Economic and Monetary Union, chapter 12 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Balachandra, P., 2011. "Dynamics of rural energy access in India: An assessment," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 5556-5567.
- Shrimali, Gireesh & Slaski, Xander & Thurber, Mark C. & Zerriffi, Hisham, 2011. "Improved stoves in India: A study of sustainable business models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7543-7556.
- Jain, Varinder, 2006. "Political Economy of Electricity Subsidy: Evidence from Punjab," MPRA Paper 240, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Thavasi, V. & Ramakrishna, S., 2009. "Asia energy mixes from socio-economic and environmental perspectives," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4240-4250, November.
- ., 2005. "Three Dimensions of Internationalization," Chapters, in: Managing the Embedded Multinational, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Wamukonya, Njeri, 2003. "Power sector reform in developing countries: mismatched agendas," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 1273-1289, September.
- Li, Binsheng & Dorian, James P, 1995. "Change in China's power sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 619-626, July.
- ., 2005. "The Embedded Multinational â€“ An Epilogue," Chapters, in: Managing the Embedded Multinational, chapter 13 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Lin, Boqiang & Jiang, Zhujun, 2011. "Estimates of energy subsidies in China and impact of energy subsidy reform," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 273-283, March.
- Moe, Espen, 2010. "Energy, industry and politics: Energy, vested interests, and long-term economic growth and development," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1730-1740.
- Shukla, Umesh Kumar & Thampy, Ashok, 2011. "Analysis of competition and market power in the wholesale electricity market in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2699-2710, May.
- Zhang, Lixiao & Yang, Zhifeng & Chen, Bin & Chen, Guoqian, 2009. "Rural energy in China: Pattern and policy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2813-2823.
- Pachauri, Shonali & Spreng, Daniel, 2011. "Measuring and monitoring energy poverty," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7497-7504.
- Oda, Hisaya & Tsujita, Yuko, 2011. "The determinants of rural electrification: The case of Bihar, India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3086-3095, June.
- Christiaensen, Luc & Scott, Christopher & Wodon, Quentin, 2002. "Development Targets and Costs," MPRA Paper 12299, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Büscher, Bram, 2009. "Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3951-3958, October.
- Srivastava, Leena & Rehman, I.H., 2006. "Energy for sustainable development in India: Linkages and strategic direction," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 643-654, March.
- Pohekar, S.D. & Kumar, Dinesh & Ramachandran, M., 2005. "Dissemination of cooking energy alternatives in India--a review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 379-393, August.
- ., 2012. "Electric Power," Chapters, in: Regulatory Reform of Public Utilities, chapter 3, pages 49-64 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur & Malhotra, Preeti & Pal, Ram Chandra & Singh, Phool Badan, 2005. "Availability of kerosene to rural households: a case study from India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(17), pages 2165-2174, November.
- Chris Trimble & Nobuo Yoshida & Mohammad Saqib, 2011. "Rethinking Electricity Tariffs and Subsidies in Pakistan," World Bank Other Operational Studies 19456, The World Bank.
- Bhide, Anjali & Monroy, Carlos Rodríguez, 2011. "Energy poverty: A special focus on energy poverty in India and renewable energy technologies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 1057-1066, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:47:y:2012:i:s1:p:27-37. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.