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Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies

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Listed:
  • Rehman, I.H.
  • Kar, Abhishek
  • Banerjee, Manjushree
  • Kumar, Preeth
  • Shardul, Martand
  • Mohanty, Jeevan
  • Hossain, Ijaz

Abstract

Globally, 1.5 billion people lack access to electricity and nearly 3 billion lack access to modern cooking energy options. Of the world’s “energy poor”, 95% are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Within Asia, almost 80% of electricity-deprived and 86% of biomass-dependent populations are in the “Big 5” countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. In this paper, we discuss the broad contours of the political economy of energy access in these countries. The political economy is assessed through an examination of three sustainability objectives: accessibility of physical infrastructure; energy service delivery; and conformance to social goals. The key areas of concern include emphasis on supply-driven grid electricity; vested power dynamics favouring affluent and urban areas; unreliability of energy service provision; and misdirected and misappropriated subsidies. The above-mentioned issues are responsible for limiting accelerated achievement of universal energy access in the “Big 5” countries and need to be addressed through innovative approaches. The paper emphasizes the need for firm commitments, policy convergence, and the implementation of 'pro-poor' equitable energy policies through a broad-based energy framework of bench-marked, technology-neutral energy provisioning that ensures reliability and equity. It highlights the need for reorienting of the subsidy regime and incorporating energy service delivery indicators in monitoring and reporting mechanisms.

Suggested Citation

  • Rehman, I.H. & Kar, Abhishek & Banerjee, Manjushree & Kumar, Preeth & Shardul, Martand & Mohanty, Jeevan & Hossain, Ijaz, 2012. "Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(S1), pages 27-37.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:47:y:2012:i:s1:p:27-37
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.03.043
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    1. Rozita Singh & Xiao Wang & Juan Carlos Mendoza & Emmanuel Kofi Ackom, 2015. "Electricity (in)accessibility to the urban poor in developing countries," Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 339-353, July.
    2. Banerjee, Manjushree & Prasad, Rakesh & Rehman, Ibrahim H & Gill, Bigsna, 2016. "Induction stoves as an option for clean cooking in rural India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 159-167.
    3. repec:eee:enepol:v:109:y:2017:i:c:p:817-824 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Raha, Debadayita & Mahanta, Pinakeswar & Clarke, Michèle L., 2014. "The implementation of decentralised biogas plants in Assam, NE India: The impact and effectiveness of the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 80-91.
    5. Sutar, Kailasnath B. & Kohli, Sangeeta & Ravi, M.R. & Ray, Anjan, 2015. "Biomass cookstoves: A review of technical aspects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 1128-1166.
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    7. Palit, Debajit & Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Cooper, Christopher & Zoppo, David & Eidsness, Jay & Crafton, Meredith & Johnson, Katie & Clarke, Shannon, 2013. "The trials and tribulations of the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 407-417.
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    9. Aglina, Moses Kwame & Agbejule, Adebayo & Nyamuame, Godwin Yao, 2016. "Policy framework on energy access and key development indicators: ECOWAS interventions and the case of Ghana," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 332-342.
    10. Punia Sindhu, Sonal & Nehra, Vijay & Luthra, Sunil, 2016. "Recognition and prioritization of challenges in growth of solar energy using analytical hierarchy process: Indian outlook," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 332-348.
    11. Chirambo, Dumisani, 2016. "Addressing the renewable energy financing gap in Africa to promote universal energy access: Integrated renewable energy financing in Malawi," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 793-803.
    12. Comello, Stephen D. & Reichelstein, Stefan J. & Sahoo, Anshuman & Schmidt, Tobias S., 2017. "Enabling Mini-Grid Development in Rural India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 94-107.
    13. Veldhuis, A.J. & Reinders, A.H.M.E., 2013. "Reviewing the potential and cost-effectiveness of grid-connected solar PV in Indonesia on a provincial level," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 315-324.

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