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Assessing the functional relationship between CO2 emissions and economic development using an additive mixed model approach

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  • Zanin, Luca
  • Marra, Giampiero

Abstract

Researchers have suggested that the relationship between the emission of carbon dioxide per capita and the real gross domestic product per capita follows an inverted-U-shaped (so-called environmental Kuznets) curve. Studies have generally used polynomial regression (quadratic or cubic form) to investigate this relationship. It has been recognised that polynomials are not that flexible and that, by choosing the degree of the polynomial, researchers make a priori assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis using a flexible approach from additive mixed models. Such models are well-suited to handle nonlinear covariate effects flexibly and to simultaneously deal with temporal error structure. We consider the following countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Our results show the existence of the classic environmental Kuznets curve for France and Switzerland, and of a nonlinear (increasing) relationship for Australia, Italy and Spain. For Austria, the evidence reveals a weak N-shaped relationship. New nonlinear shapes are found for Finland (inverted-L-shape relationship), Canada (a special case of the inverted-L-shape relationship), and Denmark (M-shape relationship). Our findings are complemented by the calculation of the elasticity of the carbon dioxide emission per capita as a percentage of each level of real gross domestic product per capita.

Suggested Citation

  • Zanin, Luca & Marra, Giampiero, 2012. "Assessing the functional relationship between CO2 emissions and economic development using an additive mixed model approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1328-1337.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:29:y:2012:i:4:p:1328-1337
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2012.03.007
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    Cited by:

    1. Thomas Jobert & Fatih Karanfil & Anna Tykhonenko, 2014. "Estimating country-specific environmental Kuznets curves from panel data: a Bayesian shrinkage approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(13), pages 1449-1464, May.
    2. Barra, Cristian & Zotti, Roberto, 2016. "Investigating the impact of national income on environmental pollution. International evidence," MPRA Paper 74149, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Lau, Lin-Sea & Choong, Chee-Keong & Eng, Yoke-Kee, 2014. "Investigation of the environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Malaysia: Do foreign direct investment and trade matter?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 490-497.
    4. Liddle, Brantley & Messinis, George, 2015. "Revisiting sulfur Kuznets curves with endogenous breaks modeling: Substantial evidence of inverted-Us/Vs for individual OECD countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 278-285.
    5. Jeyhun I. Mikayilov & Fakhri J. Hasanov & Marzio Galeotti, 2018. "Decoupling of C02 Emissions and GDP: A Time-Varying Cointegration Approach," IEFE Working Papers 101, IEFE, Center for Research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
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    7. Ernesto Aguayo-Téllez & José Martínez-Navarro, 2013. "Internal and international migration in Mexico: 1995--2000," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(13), pages 1647-1661, May.
    8. Brantley Liddle & George Messinis, 2018. "Revisiting carbon Kuznets curves with endogenous breaks modeling: evidence of decoupling and saturation (but few inverted-Us) for individual OECD countries," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 783-798, March.
    9. Castillo-Manzano, José I. & Castro-Nuño, Mercedes & Pedregal-Tercero, Diego J., 2014. "Temporary speed limit changes: An econometric estimation of the effects of the Spanish Energy Efficiency and Saving Plan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(S1), pages 68-76.
    10. repec:eee:rensus:v:75:y:2017:i:c:p:1339-1347 is not listed on IDEAS
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    12. You, Wan-Hai & Zhu, Hui-Ming & Yu, Keming & Peng, Cheng, 2015. "Democracy, Financial Openness, and Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Heterogeneity Across Existing Emission Levels," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 189-207.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Additive mixed model; CO2 emission; Economic development; Environmental Kuznets curve; Penalised regression spline; Polynomial regression;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics

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