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Impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia: ¿mayores salarios y más desigualdad?


  • Cuesta Laura



Este trabajo analiza el impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia. Se buscaresponder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿existe un diferencial salarialentre empleados sindicalizados y no sindicalizados atribuible a lossindicatos?, ¿cuál es la magnitud del diferencial? y ¿qué parte de ladesigualdad en los salarios de empleados es explicada por los sindicatos?Para determinar si existe un diferencial y la magnitud del mismo,se utiliza el método de evaluación de impacto, propensity scorematching. Los resultados indican que existe un diferencial positivo, afavor de los trabajadores sindicalizados. El diferencial oscila entre el3% y el 5% del salario mensual y entre el 15% y el 16% del salariopor hora. Cuando se analiza el impacto sólo en el sector privado, eldiferencial salarial se incrementa y oscila entre el 22% y el 27% delsalario mensual y entre el 52% y 56% del salario por hora. Para estimarla fracción de la desigualdad salarial explicada por los sindicatos, se utiliza el método de descomposición de Fields. Los resultados indicanque el 4% de la desigualdad en los salarios de empleados seexplica por los sindicatos y, a diferencia de los hallazgos para otrospaíses, los sindicatos en Colombia contribuyen a empeorar la distribucióndel ingreso. La muestra proviene de la Encuesta Nacional deHogares realizada en diciembre de 2000.

Suggested Citation

  • Cuesta Laura, 2005. "Impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia: ¿mayores salarios y más desigualdad?," REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000090:004561

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David Card, 1992. "The Effect of Unions on the Distribution of Wages: Redistribution or Relabelling?," NBER Working Papers 4195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
    3. Bryson, Alex, 2002. "The union membership wage premium: an analysis using propensity score matching," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4953, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Adriana Cassoni & Gaston J. Labadie & Gabriela Fachola, 2002. "The Economic Effects of Unions in Latin America: Their Impact on Wages and the Economic Performance of Firms in Uruguay," Research Department Publications 3159, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Gregory, Robert G. & Borland, Jeff, 1999. "Recent developments in public sector labor markets," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 53, pages 3573-3630 Elsevier.
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    Cited by:

    1. Marcela Eslava & Marcela Melendez, 2009. "Politics, Policies and the Dynamics of Aggregate Productivity in Colombia," Research Department Publications 4633, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

    More about this item


    sindicatos; diferenciales salariales; desigualdad; distribucióndel ingreso; evaluación de impacto; Colombia;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J51 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement


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