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Impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia: ¿mayores salarios y más desigualdad?

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    Este trabajo analiza el impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia. Se buscaresponder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿existe un diferencial salarialentre empleados sindicalizados y no sindicalizados atribuible a lossindicatos?, ¿cuál es la magnitud del diferencial? y ¿qué parte de ladesigualdad en los salarios de empleados es explicada por los sindicatos?Para determinar si existe un diferencial y la magnitud del mismo,se utiliza el método de evaluación de impacto, propensity scorematching. Los resultados indican que existe un diferencial positivo, afavor de los trabajadores sindicalizados. El diferencial oscila entre el3% y el 5% del salario mensual y entre el 15% y el 16% del salariopor hora. Cuando se analiza el impacto sólo en el sector privado, eldiferencial salarial se incrementa y oscila entre el 22% y el 27% delsalario mensual y entre el 52% y 56% del salario por hora. Para estimarla fracción de la desigualdad salarial explicada por los sindicatos, se utiliza el método de descomposición de Fields. Los resultados indicanque el 4% de la desigualdad en los salarios de empleados seexplica por los sindicatos y, a diferencia de los hallazgos para otrospaíses, los sindicatos en Colombia contribuyen a empeorar la distribucióndel ingreso. La muestra proviene de la Encuesta Nacional deHogares realizada en diciembre de 2000.

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    File URL: http://economia.uniandes.edu.co/revistadys/56/Sindicatos.pdf
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    Article provided by UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE in its journal REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD.

    Volume (Year): (2005)
    Issue (Month): ()
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    Handle: RePEc:col:000090:004561
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    1. Adriana Cassoni & Gaston J. Labadie & Gabriela Fachola, 2002. "The Economic Effects of Unions in Latin America: Their Impact on Wages and the Economic Performance of Firms in Uruguay," Research Department Publications 3159, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    2. Alex Bryson, 2002. "The Union Membership Wage Premium: An Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching," CEP Discussion Papers dp0530, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    3. Gregory, Robert G. & Borland, Jeff, 1999. "Recent developments in public sector labor markets," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 53, pages 3573-3630 Elsevier.
    4. David Card, 1992. "The Effect of Unions on the Distribution of Wages: Redistribution or Relabelling?," NBER Working Papers 4195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
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