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Mentoring verbessert die Arbeitsmarktchancen von stark benachteiligten Jugendlichen

Author

Listed:
  • Sven Resnjanskij
  • Jens Ruhose
  • Simon Wiederhold
  • Ludger Wößmann

Abstract

Wie lassen sich die Arbeitsmarktchancen von Jugendlichen aus stark benachteiligten Verhältnissen verbessern? Ein möglicher Ansatz sind Mentoring-Programme, die den Jugendlichen ehrenamtliche Student*innen zur Unterstützung an die Seite stellen. Aber helfen solche Programme wirklich? Dies empirisch zu überprüfen, wird dadurch erschwert, dass sich in verfügbaren Datensätzen keine überzeugende Kontrollgruppe ähnlich benachteiligter Jugendlicher finden lässt, die Aussagen darüber zulassen würde, wie sich die Jugendlichen ohne die Teilnahme am Mentoring entwickelt hätten. Deshalb haben wir in einem großen deutschen Mentoring-Programm, bei dem es mehr Bewerber*innen als freie Plätze gab, das Los über die Teilnahme entscheiden lassen. Durch die zufällige Einteilung bieten die Jugendlichen, die nicht in das Programm gelost wurden, eine überzeugende Kontrollgruppe für die Teilnehmenden. Wir finden, dass das Mentoring-Programm einen Index der Arbeitsmarktaussichten von Acht- und Neuntklässler*innen aus stark benachteiligten Verhältnissen ein Jahr nach Programmstart deutlich verbessert. Die positiven Effekte finden sich für alle drei Komponenten des Index, die kognitive (Mathematiknote), nicht-kognitive (Geduld und Sozialkompetenzen) und motivationale (Arbeitsmarktorientierung) Aspekte messen. Für die stark benachteiligten Jugendlichen übersteigen die zu erwartenden Einkommenserträge die Kosten des Programms um ein Vielfaches. Demgegenüber hat das Programm bei Jugendlichen aus weniger benachteiligten familiären Verhältnissen keine positiven Effekte. Dies legt nahe, dass Mentoring gerade dort wirken kann, wo es eingeschränkte familiäre Unterstützung ergänzt.

Suggested Citation

  • Sven Resnjanskij & Jens Ruhose & Simon Wiederhold & Ludger Wößmann, 2021. "Mentoring verbessert die Arbeitsmarktchancen von stark benachteiligten Jugendlichen," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 74(02), pages 31-38, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ifosdt:v:74:y:2021:i:02:p:31-38
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bildungspolitik; Jugendliche; Arbeitsmarktintegration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy

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