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Children's Schooling and Parental Migration: Empirical Evidence on the ‘Left‐behind’ Generation in Albania

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  • Gianna Claudia Giannelli
  • Lucia Mangiavacchi

Abstract

This article investigates the long-term effects of parental migration abroad on the schooling of children left behind in Albania. Although parents' migration usually benefits children economically, the lack of parental care may cause relational and psychological problems that may affect children's welfare in the long term. The phenomenon of children left behind — mainly by fathers — is considerable in Albania, where migration has represented the only viable way to cope with an increasing poverty and the scarcity of public resources for sustaining households' incomes. Between 1990 and 2005 in Albania 22 per cent of children under 18 have been left behind, with an average parental absence of 9 months. Using detailed information on family migration drawn from the Living Standard Measurement Survey for 2005, multiple‐choice models are applied to evaluate the school progression of older children and adolescents. A duration analysis of school participation with both discrete and continuous time models is then performed. The results show that past parental migration has a negative effect on school attendance in the long term with higher hazards of school dropouts for children left behind. These results are robust to the use of different econometric techniques and model specifications.

Suggested Citation

  • Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Lucia Mangiavacchi, 2010. "Children's Schooling and Parental Migration: Empirical Evidence on the ‘Left‐behind’ Generation in Albania," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(s1), pages 76-92, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:labour:v:24:y:2010:i:s1:p:76-92
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1467-9914.2010.00504.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2006. "Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 450-474, July.
    2. Calero, Carla & Bedi, Arjun S. & Sparrow, Robert, 2009. "Remittances, Liquidity Constraints and Human Capital Investments in Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1143-1154, June.
    3. Kiros, Gebre-Egzbiabher & White, Michael J., 2004. "Migration, community context, and child immunization in Ethiopia," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 59(12), pages 2603-2616, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gassmann F. & Siegel M. & Vanore M. & Waidler J., 2013. "The impact of migration on children left behind in Moldova," MERIT Working Papers 043, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    2. Lucia Mangiavacchi & Federico Perali & Luca Piccoli, 2014. "Intrahousehold distribution in migrant-sending families," Working Papers 344, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    3. Sylvie Démurger & Hui Xu, 2011. "Left-Behind Children and Return Decisions of Rural Migrants in China," Post-Print halshs-00625636, HAL.
    4. Narazani, Edlira, 2013. "The impact of Migration on Infant Mortality Reduction in Albania," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201315, University of Turin.
    5. Irene Mosca & Alan Barrett, 2016. "The impact of adult child emigration on the mental health of older parents," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(3), pages 687-719, July.
    6. Viet Nguyen, Cuong, 2016. "Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 230-239.
    7. Démurger, Sylvie & Wang, Xiaoqian, 2016. "Remittances and expenditure patterns of the left behinds in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 177-190.
    8. Francisca M. Antman, 2013. "The impact of migration on family left behind," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 16, pages 293-308 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Lucia Mangiavacchi, 2016. "Family structure and children’s educational attainment in transition economies," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 303-303, October.
    10. Botezat, Alina & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2014. "The impact of parents migration on the well-being of children left behind: Initial evidence from Romania," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-029, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    11. Fitzsimons, Emla & Mesnard, Alice, 2013. "Can conditional cash transfers compensate for a father's absence ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6476, The World Bank.
    12. Sylvie Démurger & Hui Xu, 2015. "Left-behind children and return migration in China," IZA Journal of Migration, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-21, December.
    13. Clifton-Sprigg, Joanna, 2014. "Out of sight, out of mind? Educational outcomes of children with parents working abroad," SIRE Discussion Papers 2015-45, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    14. Masamune Iwasawa & Mitsuo Inada & Seiichi Fukui, 2014. "How Migrant Heterogeneity Influences the Effect of Remittances on Educational Expenditure:Empirical Evidence from the Cambodian Socio-Economic Survey," KIER Working Papers 898, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    15. Marina Mastrorillo & Giorgio Fagiolo, 2014. "International Migration and School Enrollment of the Left-Behinds in Albania: A Note," LEM Papers Series 2014/13, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    16. Joanna Clifton-Sprigg, 2014. "Out of sight, out of mind? Educational outcomes of children with parents working abroad," ESE Discussion Papers 251, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
    17. Clifton-Sprigg, Joanna, 2014. "Out of sight, out of mind? Educational outcomes of children with parents working abroad," 2007 Annual Meeting, July 29-August 1, 2007, Portland, Oregon TN 2015-45, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    18. Barbara Dietz & Kseniia Gatskova & Artjoms Ivlevs, 2015. "Emigration, Remittances and the Education of Children Staying Behind: Evidence from Tajikistan," Working Papers 354, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    19. Luca Piccoli, 2017. "Female poverty and intrahousehold inequality in transition economies," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 353-353, March.
    20. Bai, Yu & Zhang, Linxiu & Liu, Chengfang & Shi, Yaojiang & Mo, Di & Rozelle, Scott, 2016. "Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Northwestern China," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236806, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    21. Nguyen, Cuong Viet & Vu, Linh Hoang, 2014. "Should Parents Work Away from or Close to Home? The Effect of Temporary Parental Absence on Child Poverty and Children’s Time Use in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 52877, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Cebotari, Victor & Siegel, Melissa & Mazzucato, Valentina, 2016. "Migration and the education of children who stay behind in Moldova and Georgia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 96-107.
    23. Kseniia Gatskova & Artjoms Ivlevs & Barbara Dietz, 2017. "Does migration affect education of girls and young women in Tajikistan?," WIDER Working Paper Series 104, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • P36 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

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