IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Trade Balance and Exchange Rate: Unit Roots, Co-integration and Long Memory in the US and the UK


  • Luis A. Gil-Alana
  • Natalia Luqui
  • Juncal Cunado


This paper deals with the relationship between the balance of trade and the exchange rate in the US/UK case. Many authors have studied this issue for many countries, but despite the intensive research, there is still no agreement about the effectiveness of currency devaluation to increase a country's balance of trade. We first analyse the relationship between the two variables using unit roots and co-integration methods, and the results are ambiguous. We try a new approach based on fractional integration. The unit root hypothesis is rejected in case of the trade balance in favour of smaller orders of integration, while this hypothesis is not rejected for the exchange rate. Thus, the two series do not possess the same order of integration. We sort this problem out by taking the exchange rate as an exogenous variable, and including it in a regression model where the residuals might follow a fractionally integrated model. Copyright 2008 The Authors Journal compilation 2008 Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis A. Gil-Alana & Natalia Luqui & Juncal Cunado, 2008. "Trade Balance and Exchange Rate: Unit Roots, Co-integration and Long Memory in the US and the UK," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 37(1), pages 59-74, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ecnote:v:37:y:2008:i:1:p:59-74

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Christophe Rault & Robert Sova & Anamaria Sova, 2011. "Europe Agreements and Trade Balance: Evidence from Four New EU Members," CESifo Working Paper Series 3340, CESifo Group Munich.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:ecnote:v:37:y:2008:i:1:p:59-74. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.