IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/afrdev/v25y2013i4p400-420.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Gender Equality in Employment in Africa: Empirical Analysis and Policy Implications

Author

Listed:
  • John C. Anyanwu
  • Darline Augustine

Abstract

type="main" xml:lang="en"> Gender equality in employment is currently one of the greatest development challenges facing countries globally, including those in Africa. In 2011, the male employment-to-population ratio, globally, was estimated at about 72.7 per cent compared to the female employment-to-population ratio of only 47.9 per cent. For Africa as a whole, the male employment-to-population ratio was estimated at about 69.2 per cent compared to the female employment-to-population ratio of only 39.2 per cent. In addition to analysing the characteristics of gender equality in employment in Africa, this paper empirically studies the key drivers of gender equality in employment (proxied by the ratio of female employment rate to male employment rate for the age group 15–64 over the period, 1991 and 2009), using cross-sectional data. Our results suggest that for the all-Africa and sub-Saharan African samples, increased democracy (and its quadratic form), higher gross domestic investment, more primary education, and higher urban share of the population increase gender equality in employment while higher level of real GDP per capita, higher foreign direct investment, sex population ratio, and being a net oil-exporting country tend to lower it. However, North Africa is different. Apart from a negative and highly significant North African dummy in the overall results, the North African specific sample result indicates that while the quadratic element of real GDP per capita, higher gross domestic investment, higher urban share of the population, more secondary education, and being an oil-exporting country increase gender equality in employment, higher levels of real GDP per capita, more primary education, and sex population ratio tend to lower gender equality in employment in the sub-region. The policy implications and lessons of these results are discussed. These policies are directed at making the African labor market more inclusive and hence enhancing women's employment for the purpose of greater economic empowerment, household welfare and poverty reduction, in particular.

Suggested Citation

  • John C. Anyanwu & Darline Augustine, 2013. "Gender Equality in Employment in Africa: Empirical Analysis and Policy Implications," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(4), pages 400-420, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:afrdev:v:25:y:2013:i:4:p:400-420
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:afrdev:v:25:y:2013:i:4:p:400-420. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley Content Delivery). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/afdbgci.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.