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Adoption of Milk and Feed Forward Pricing Methods by Dairy Farmers


  • Wolf, Christopher A.
  • Widmar, Nicole J. Olynk


Increasing volatility in milk and feed prices has led to higher levels of market and financial risk for dairy farmers. We examine dairy farmer use of forward pricing methods for milk sales and feed purchases. Operators with larger herds, higher levels of education, and those farm businesses that were not organized as sole proprietorships were more likely to have used forward pricing. We also examine reasons dairy farm operators had not used these tools to date and find that the most common reason was lack of knowledge. These findings may be used to target educational seminars and outreach to dairy farm managers.

Suggested Citation

  • Wolf, Christopher A. & Widmar, Nicole J. Olynk, 2014. "Adoption of Milk and Feed Forward Pricing Methods by Dairy Farmers," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1-14, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:joaaec:189100
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.189100

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bosch, Darrell J. & Johnson, Christian J., 1992. "An Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for Dairy Farms," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 173-182, December.
    2. Hayley H. Chouinard & David E. Davis & Jeffrey T. LaFrance & Jeffrey M. Perloff, 2010. "Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 32(1), pages 59-76.
    3. Ani L. Katchova & Mario J. Miranda, 2004. "Two-Step Econometric Estimation of Farm Characteristics Affecting Marketing Contract Decisions," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(1), pages 88-102.
    4. Tomek, William G., 1987. "Effects of Futures and Options Trading on Farm Incomes," Staff Papers 186718, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    5. Christopher A. Wolf & J. Roy Black & Joleen C. Hadrich, 2009. "Upper Midwest dairy farm revenue variation and insurance implications," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 69(3), pages 346-358, November.
    6. Bozic, Marin & Newton, John & Thraen, Cameron S. & Gould, Brian W., 2012. "Mean-reversion in Income over Feed Cost Margins:Evidence and Implications for Managing Margin Risk by U.S. Dairy Producers," Staff Papers 132379, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
    7. Paudel, Krishna P. & Gauthier, Wayne M. & Westra, John V. & Hall, Larry M., 2008. "Factors Influencing and Steps Leading to the Adoption of Best Management Practices by Louisiana Dairy Farmers," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 40(1), pages 1-20, April.
    8. B.I. Shapiro & B. Wade Brorsen, 1988. "Factors Affecting Farmers' Hedging Decisions," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 10(2), pages 145-153.
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    Cited by:

    1. Loughrey, J. & Thorne, F. & Kinsella, A. & Hennessy, T. & O'Donoghue, C. & Vollenweider, X., 2015. "Market risk management and the demand for forward contracts among Irish dairy farmers," International Journal of Agricultural Management, Institute of Agricultural Management, vol. 4(4), July.
    2. MacDonald, James M. & Cessna, Jerry & Mosheim, Roberto, 2016. "Changing Structure, Financial Risks, and Government Policy for the U.S. Dairy Industry," Economic Research Report 262200, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    3. Charlebois, Sylvain, 2016. "Policy-change Triggered Environmental Uncertainty in a Dairy Cooperative: The Case of Mila in South Tyrol," International Journal on Food System Dynamics, International Center for Management, Communication, and Research, vol. 7(3), pages 1-13, July.


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