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Relaxing The Assumptions Of Minimum-Variance Hedging

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  • Lence, Sergio H.

Abstract

The most important minimum-variance hedging ration assumptions are (a) that production is deterministic and (b) that all of the agent’'s wealth is invested in the cash position. Stochastic production greatly reduces optimal hedge ratios. An alternative investment greatly reduces opportunity costs of not hedging by “"diluting"” the cash position. Stochastic production and/or alternative investments render the costs associated with hedging relatively more important, yielding almost negligible net benefits of hedging. Hence, hedging costs typically dismiss in hedging models for being seemingly negligible are important determinants of hedging behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • Lence, Sergio H., 1996. "Relaxing The Assumptions Of Minimum-Variance Hedging," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 21(01), July.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:jlaare:30990
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    1. Steven C. Blank, 1992. "The significance of hedging capital requirements," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(1), pages 11-18, February.
    2. Sergio H. Lence & Kevin L. Kimle & Marvin L. Hayenga, 1993. "A Dynamic Minimum Variance Hedge," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 75(4), pages 1063-1071.
    3. Sergio H. Lence, 1995. "The Economic Value of Minimum-Variance Hedges," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(2), pages 353-364.
    4. Kenneth H. Mathews & Duncan M. Holthausen, 1991. "A Simple Multiperiod Minimum Risk Hedge Model," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 73(4), pages 1020-1026.
    5. Benninga, Simon & Eldor, Rafael & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1983. "Optimal hedging in the futures market under price uncertainty," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 13(2-3), pages 141-145.
    6. Kroll, Yoram & Levy, Haim & Markowitz, Harry M, 1984. " Mean-Variance versus Direct Utility Maximization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 47-61, March.
    7. Tomek, William G., 1987. "Effects of Futures and Options Trading on Farm Incomes," Staff Papers 186718, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mattos, Fabio & Garcia, Philip & Pennings, Joost M.E., 2008. "Probability weighting and loss aversion in futures hedging," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 433-452, November.
    2. Rocha, Waldemar Antonio da & Caldarelli, Carlos Eduardo, 2010. "The Dynamic Hedging Effectiveness For Soybean Farmers Of Mato Grosso With Futures Contracts Of Bm&F," Organizacoes Rurais e Agroindustriais/Rural and Agro-Industrial Organizations, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Administracao e Economia, vol. 12(1).
    3. Ardian Harri & John Michael Riley & John D. Anderson & Keith H. Coble, 2009. "Managing economic risk in value-based marketing of fed cattle," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(3), pages 295-306, May.
    4. Haigh, Michael S. & Holt, Matthew T., 1999. "Volatility Spillovers Between Foreign Exchange, Commodity And Freight Futures Prices: Implications For Hedging Strategies," 1999 Annual meeting, August 8-11, Nashville, TN 21625, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    5. Woodard, Joshua D. & Garcia, Philip, 2007. "Basis Risk and Weather Hedging Effectiveness," 101st Seminar, July 5-6, 2007, Berlin Germany 9254, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    6. Townsend, John P. & Brorsen, B. Wade, 2000. "Cost Of Forward Contracting Hard Red Winter Wheat," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 32(01), April.
    7. Su, EnDer, 2017. "Stock index hedging using a trend and volatility regime-switching model involving hedging cost," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 233-254.
    8. Jin, Hyun J. & Koo, Won W., 2006. "Offshore hedging strategy of Japan-based wheat traders under multiple sources of risk and hedging costs," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 220-236, March.
    9. Thomas Conlon & John Cotter & Ramazan Gençay, 2016. "Commodity futures hedging, risk aversion and the hedging horizon," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(15), pages 1534-1560, December.
    10. Sayle, James & Anderson, John D. & Coble, Keith H. & Hudson, Darren, 2006. "Optimal Hedging Strategies for Early-Planted Soybeans in the South," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21200, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    11. repec:spr:empeco:v:53:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s00181-016-1146-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Urcola, Hernan A. & Irwin, Scott H., 2006. "Has the Performance of the Hog Options Market Changed?," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21479, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    13. Mattos, Fabio & Garcia, Philip & Nelson, Carl, 2008. "Relaxing standard hedging assumptions in the presence of downside risk," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 78-93, February.
    14. Chen, Sheng-Syan & Lee, Cheng-few & Shrestha, Keshab, 2003. "Futures hedge ratios: a review," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 433-465.
    15. Tonsor, Glynn T., 2008. "Hedging in Presence of Market Access Risk," 2008 Conference, April 21-22, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri 37621, NCCC-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
    16. Frechette, Darren L., 2000. "Hedging With Futures And Options: A Demand Systems Approach," 2000 Conference, April 17-18 2000, Chicago, Illinois 18941, NCR-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
    17. Fu, Junhui & Zhang, Wei-Guo & Yao, Zheng & Zhang, Xili, 2012. "Hedging the portfolio of raw materials and the commodity under the mark-to-market risk," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1070-1075.
    18. Pennings, Joost M. E. & Garcia, Philip, 2004. "Hedging behavior in small and medium-sized enterprises: The role of unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 951-978, May.
    19. Frechette, Darren L., 2003. "The Potential Value of Agricultural Trade Options," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 32(2), October.

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