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Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning

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  • Allison Shertzer
  • Tate Twinam
  • Randall P. Walsh

Abstract

Zoning policies can have marked impacts on the spatial distribution of people and land use, yet there is little systematic evidence on their origin. Investigating the causes of these regulations is complicated by the fact that land use and zoning have been co-evolving for nearly a century. We employ a novel approach to overcome this challenge, studying the factors underpinning the introduction of comprehensive zoning in Chicago. We find evidence consistent with a precursor to exclusionary zoning as well as support for the hypothesis that industrial use zoning was disproportionately allocated to neighborhoods populated by ethnic and racial minorities.

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  • Allison Shertzer & Tate Twinam & Randall P. Walsh, 2016. "Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 217-246, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aejapp:v:8:y:2016:i:3:p:217-46
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/app.20140430
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Maantay, J., 2001. "Zoning, equity, and public health," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 91(7), pages 1033-1041.
    2. David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser & Jacob L. Vigdor, 2008. "Is the Melting Pot Still Hot? Explaining the Resurgence of Immigrant Segregation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 478-497, August.
    3. McMillen, Daniel P. & McDonald, John F., 1999. "Land use before zoning: The case of 1920's Chicago," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 473-489, July.
    4. Allison Shertzer & Tate Twinam & Randall P. Walsh, 2016. "Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 217-246, July.
    5. Daniel P. McMillen & John F. McDonald, 2002. "Land Values In A Newly Zoned City," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 62-72, February.
    6. Allison Shertzer & Randall P. Walsh & John R. Logan, 2016. "Segregation and neighborhood change in northern cities: New historical GIS data from 1900–1930," Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(4), pages 187-197, October.
    7. McMillen, Daniel, 2015. "Conditionally parametric quantile regression for spatial data: An analysis of land values in early nineteenth century Chicago," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 28-38.
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    9. Carlos Villarreal & Brian Bettenhausen & Eric Hanss & Jonathan Hersh, 2014. "Historical Health Conditions in Major U.S. Cities," Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 67-80, June.
    10. Leah Brooks & Byron Lutz, 2019. "Vestiges of Transit: Urban Persistence at a Microscale," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(3), pages 385-399, July.
    11. Jonathan T. Rothwell, 2011. "Racial Enclaves and Density Zoning: The Institutionalized Segregation of Racial Minorities in the United States," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(1), pages 290-358.
    12. Brooks Depro & Christopher Timmins & Maggie O'Neil, 2015. "White Flight and Coming to the Nuisance: Can Residential Mobility Explain Environmental Injustice?," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(3), pages 439-468.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Graziella Bertocchi & Arcangelo Dimico, 2020. "COVID-19, Race, and Redlining," Department of Economics 0175, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    2. Graziella Bertocchi & Arcangelo Dimico, 2020. "COVID-19, Race, and Redlining," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 145, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    3. Gyourko, Joseph & Molloy, Raven, 2015. "Regulation and Housing Supply," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: Gilles Duranton & J. V. Henderson & William C. Strange (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 0, pages 1289-1337, Elsevier.
    4. Allison Shertzer & Tate Twinam & Randall P. Walsh, 2016. "Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 217-246, July.
    5. Twinam, Tate, 2018. "The long-run impact of zoning: Institutional hysteresis and durable capital in Seattle, 1920–2015," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 155-169.
    6. Shertzer, Allison & Twinam, Tate & Walsh, Randall P., 2018. "Zoning and the economic geography of cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 20-39.
    7. Anthony Yezer & William Larson & Weihua Zhao, 2018. "An Examination of the Link between Urban Planning Policies and the High Cost of Housing and Labor," Working Papers 2018-6, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    8. Panza, Laura, 2020. "The impact of ethnic segregation on schooling outcomes in Mandate Palestine," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(C).
    9. Niemesh, Gregory T. & Shester, Katharine L., 2020. "Racial residential segregation and black low birth weight, 1970–2010," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C).

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • N32 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
    • N92 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations

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