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Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices: Evidence from a Reference Price Reform in Denmark

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  • Kaiser, Ulrich
  • Méndez, Susan
  • Rønde, Thomas
  • Ullrich, Hannes

Abstract

Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs - for which they have strong preferences - to generics and parallel imports. This substitution also explains the small increase in consumer welfare despite a substantial decrease in expenditures. --

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Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order with number 79937.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79937

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Cited by:
  1. Herr, A.; & Suppliet, M.;, 2011. "Co-Payment Exemptions and Reference Prices: an Empirical Study of Pharmaceutical Prices in Germany," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York 11/18, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  2. Ivan Moreno-Torres, 2011. "What if there was a stronger pharmaceutical price competition in Spain? When regulation has a similar effect to collusion," Working Papers, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) XREAP2011-02, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised May 2011.
  3. Duso, Tomaso & Herr, Annika & Suppliet, Moritz, 2014. "The welfare impact of parallel imports: A structural approach applied to the German market for oral anti-diabetics," DICE Discussion Papers 137, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
  4. Koenig, Pamina & MacGarvie, Megan, 2011. "Regulatory policy and the location of bio-pharmaceutical foreign direct investment in Europe," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 950-965.
  5. Ivan Moreno-Torres, 2011. "Generic drugs in Spain: price competition vs. moral hazard," Working Papers, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) XREAP2011-04, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised May 2011.
  6. Brekke, Kurt R. & Holmas, Tor Helge & Straume, Odd Rune, 2011. "Reference pricing, competition, and pharmaceutical expenditures: Theory and evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 624-638, August.

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