Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies
AbstractWithin a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Health Economics.
Volume (Year): 28 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505560
Reference pricing Pricing strategies Market coverage Pharmaceutical expenditure;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ching-to Albert Ma, 1994.
"Health Care Payment Systems: Cost and Quality Incentives,"
0047, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
- Ma, Ching-to Albert, 1994. "Health Care Payment Systems: Cost and Quality Incentives," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(1), pages 93-112, Spring.
- Kurt R. Brekke & Ingrid Königbauer & Odd Rune Straume, 2006.
"Reference Pricing of Pharmaceuticals,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1825, CESifo Group Munich.
- Marisa Miraldo, 2007. "Reference Pricing Versus Co-Payment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Price, Quality and Market Coverage," Working Papers 025cherp, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
- Jorge Mestre, 2003. "Reference prices: The Spanish way," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 27(1), pages 125-149, January.
- Paolo Buonanno & Matteo M. Galizzi, 2009.
"Advocatus, et non latro? Testing the supplier-induced demand hypothesis for Italian courts of justice,"
0914, University of Brescia, Department of Economics.
- Paolo Buonanno & Matteo M. Galizzi, 2010. "Advocatus, et non latro? Testing the Supplier-Induced-Demand Hypothesis for Italian Courts of Justice," Working Papers 2010.52, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Granlund, David & Yesim Köksal, Miyase, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform: A kick or a muff for price competition in pharmaceuticals," Working Papers in Economics 496, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- Kurt R. Brekke & Tor Helge Holmås & Odd Rune Straume, 2010.
"Reference Pricing, Competition, and Pharmaceutical Expenditures: Theory and Evidence from a Natural Experiment,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
3258, CESifo Group Munich.
- Brekke, Kurt R. & Holmas, Tor Helge & Straume, Odd Rune, 2011. "Reference pricing, competition, and pharmaceutical expenditures: Theory and evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 624-638, August.
- Brekke, Kurt R. & Holmas, Tor Helge & Straume, Odd Rune, 2011. "Reference pricing, competition, and pharmaceutical expenditures: Theory and evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 624-638.
- Ghislandi, Simone, 2011. "Competition and the Reference Pricing Scheme for pharmaceuticals," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1137-1149.
- Graf, Julia, 2012. "The effects of rebate contracts on the health care system," DICE Discussion Papers 45, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
- Granlund, David & Köksal, Miyase Yesim, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform - A Kick or A Muff for Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals?," HUI Working Papers 49, HUI Research.
- Herr, A.; & Suppliet, M.;, 2011. "Co-Payment Exemptions and Reference Prices: an Empirical Study of Pharmaceutical Prices in Germany," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 11/18, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
- Ulrich Kaiser & Susan J. Mendez & Thomas Rønde, 2010.
"Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices: Evidence from a Reference Price Reform in Denmark,"
CIE Discussion Papers
2010-01, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
- Kaiser, Ulrich & Mendez, Susan J. & Rønde, Thomas, 2010. "Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: Evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-062, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Yesim Köksal, Miyase, 2009. "REFERENCE PRICING - Making Parallel Trade in Pharmaceuticals Work," Working Papers in Economics 367, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics, revised 05 Jan 2011.
- Garcia Marinoso, Begona & Jelovac, Izabella & Olivella, Pau, 2011. "External referencing and pharmaceutical price negociation," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5987, Paris Dauphine University.
- Herr, Annika & Suppliet, Moritz, 2012. "Pharmaceutical prices under regulation: Tiered co-payments and reference pricing in Germany," DICE Discussion Papers 48, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.