New Evidence on Gender Difference in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires
AbstractUsing a large sample of establishments drawn from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality (MCSUI) employer survey, we study gender differences in promotion rates and in the wage gains attached to promotions. Several unique features of our data distinguish our analysis from the previous literature on this topic. First, we have information on the wage increases attached to promotions, and relatively few studies on gender differences have considered promotions and wage increases together. Second, our data include job-specific worker performance ratings, allowing us to control for performance and ability more precisely than through commonly-used skill indicators such as educational attainment or tenure. Third, in addition to standard information on occupation and industry, we have data on a number of other firm characteristics, enabling us to control for these variables while still relying on a broad, representative sample, as opposed to a single firm or a similarly narrowly-defined population. Our results indicate that women have lower probabilities of promotion and expected promotion than do men but that there is essentially no gender difference in wage growth with or without promotions.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12321.
Date of creation: Jun 2006
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Francine Blau & Jed DeVaro, 2006. "New Evidence on Gender Differences in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires," Working Papers 891, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
- J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
- J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-07-09 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2006-07-09 (Business Economics)
- NEP-LAB-2006-07-09 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LTV-2006-07-09 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
- Cabral, Robert & Ferber, Marianne A & Green, Carole A, 1981. "Men and Women in Fiduciary Institutions: A Study of Sex Differences in Career Development," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 573-80, November.
- Michael Ransom & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2005.
"Intrafirm mobility and sex differences in pay,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 219-237, January.
- Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Vartiainen, Juhana, 2004.
"Gender Differences in Job Assignment and Promotion on a Complexity Ladder of Jobs,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1184, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Vartiainen, Juhana, 2002. "Gender Differences in Job Assignment and Promotion in a Complexity Ladder of Jobs," Working Paper Series 184, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
- McCue, Kristin, 1996. "Promotions and Wage Growth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(2), pages 175-209, April.
- Randall W. Eberts & Joe A. Stone, 1985. "Male-Female Differences in Promotions: EEO in Public Education," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 504-521.
- Craig A. Olson & Brian E. Becker, 1983. "Sex discrimination in the promotion process," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 36(4), pages 624-641, July.
- Kathy Cannings, 1988. "Managerial promotion: The effects of socialization, specialization, and gender," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 77-88, October.
- Gregory B. Lewis, 1986. "Gender and Promotions: Promotion Chances of White Men and Women in Federal White-Collar Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(3), pages 406-419.
- Mareva Sabatier, 2010.
"Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions,"
- Mareva Sabatier, 2010. "Do female researchers face a glass ceiling in France? A hazard model of promotions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(16), pages 2053-2062.
- Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
- Bernhardt, Dan, 1995. "Strategic Promotion and Compensation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(2), pages 315-39, April.
- Jed Devaro & Dana Brookshire, 2007. "Promotions and Incentives in Nonprofit and For-Profit Organizations," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(3), pages 311-339, April.
- Phelps, Edmund S, 1972. "The Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 659-61, September.
- Prendergast, Canice, 1992. "Career development and specific human capital collection," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 207-227, September.
- Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
- Barbara F. Reskin & Denise D. Bielby, 2005. "A Sociological Perspective on Gender and Career Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 71-86, Winter.
- Pablo Acosta, 2004. "Promotions, State Dependence and Intrafirm Job Mobility: Evidence From Personnel Records," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 585, Econometric Society.
- Laura Giuliano & David I. Levine & Jonathon Leonard, 2006. "An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm," Working Papers 0721, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
- Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
- Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 2001. "Getting Ahead: The Determinants of and Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women," IZA Discussion Papers 288, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Meyer, Margaret A, 1991. "Learning from Coarse Information: Biased Contests and Career Profiles," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(1), pages 15-41, January.
- Stephen J. Spurr, 1990. "Sex discrimination in the legal profession: A study of promotion," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(4), pages 406-417, April.
- Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
- Frederiksen, Anders & Kato, Takao, 2011. "Human Capital and Career Success: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data," IZA Discussion Papers 5764, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Heyman, Fredrik & Svaleryd, Helena & Vlachos, Jonas, 2008.
"Competition, Takeovers and Gender Discrimination,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6879, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Danilo Coelho & Marcelo Fernandes & Miguel Nathan Foguel, 2007. "Foreign Capital And Gender Differences In Promotions: Evidence From The Brazilian Transformation Industry," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 167, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
- Shirley H. Liu & Frank Heiland, 2012.
"Should We Get Married? The Effect Of Parents' Marriage On Out‐Of‐Wedlock Children,"
Western Economic Association International, vol. 50(1), pages 17-38, 01.
- Shirley H. Liu & Frank Heiland, 2007. "Should We Get Married? The Effect of Parents’ Marriage on Out-of-Wedlock Children," Working Papers 906, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
- Shirley H. Liu & Frank Heiland, 2007. "Should We Get Married? The Effect of Parents' Marriage on Out-of-Wedlock Children," Working Papers 0720, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
- Shirley H. Liu & Frank Heiland, 2007. "Should We Get Married? The Effect of Parents’ Marriage on Out-of-Wedlock Children," Working Papers 0611, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
- Moser, Petra, 2012. "Taste-based discrimination evidence from a shift in ethnic preferences after WWI," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 167-188.
- Hassink, Wolter & Russo, Giovanni, 2010. "The Glass Door: The Gender Composition of Newly-Hired Workers Across Hierarchical Job Levels," IZA Discussion Papers 4858, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kazuaki Okamura, 2011. "The Signalling Role of Promotion in Japan," Discussion Papers 1112, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
- Haile, Getinet Astatike, 2009. "Unhappy Working with Men? Workplace Gender Diversity and Employee Job-Related Well-Being in Britain: A WERS2004 Based Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 4077, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Empar Pons Blasco & Luisa Escriche Bertolín, 2009. "Who moves up the career ladder? A model of gender differences in job promotion," Working Papers. Serie AD 2009-23, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.