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Do Race, Age, and Gender Differences Affect Manager-Employee Relations? An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm

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  • Giuliano, Laura
  • Levine, David I.
  • Leonard, Jonathan

Abstract

Using data from a large U.S. retail firm, we examine how differences in race, age, and gender between a manager and a subordinate affect the subordinate’s rate of quits, dismissals, and promotions. We find that these demographic differences can have statistically significant and sometimes large effects on employment outcomes. This is especially true of differences in race and ethnicity, which consistently produce significant effects and which produce the largest effects. In general, demographic differences tend to produce adverse effects on employment outcomes (i.e., higher quit and dismissal rates, and lower promotion rates). But in three striking cases, where traditionally lower-status managers are supervising traditionally higher-status employees, differences produce favorable effects for employees.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley in its series Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series with number qt9tc8n5j7.

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Date of creation: 01 Jul 2006
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:indrel:qt9tc8n5j7

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Keywords: J15; J16; J7; J59;

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References

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  1. Carrington, William J & Troske, Kenneth R, 1998. "Interfirm Segregation and the Black/White Wage Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(2), pages 231-60, April.
  2. Thomas S. Dee, 2005. "A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 158-165, May.
  3. Kate L. Antonovics & Brian G. Knight, 2004. "A New Look at Racial Profiling: Evidence from the Boston Police Department," NBER Working Papers 10634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Lang, Kevin, 1986. "A Language Theory of Discrimination," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(2), pages 363-82, May.
  5. Michael A. Stoll & Steven Raphael & Harry J. Holzer, 2004. "Black job applicants and the hiring officer's race," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 57(2), pages 267-287, January.
  6. Heckman, J & Singer, B, 1984. "The Identifiability of the Proportional Hazard Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 231-41, April.
  7. Timothy Bates, 1994. "Utilization of minority employees in small business: A comparison of nonminority and black-owned urban enterprises," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 113-121, June.
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Cited by:
  1. Knut Gerlach & Olaf Hübler, 2009. "Employment Adjustments on the Internal and External Labour Market – An Empirical Study with Personnel Records of a German Company," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 229(2-3), pages 198-213, June.
  2. Pope, Devin G. & Price, Joseph & Wolfers, Justin, 2014. "Awareness Reduces Racial Bias," CEPR Discussion Papers 9868, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Laura Giuliano & David I. Levine & Jonathan Leonard, 2009. "Manager Race and the Race of New Hires," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(4), pages 589-631, October.
  4. Roger Wilkins & Mark Wooden, 2011. "The Sources of Gender Differences in Rates of Job Dismissal," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2011n27, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  5. David W. Johnston & Wang-Sheng Lee, 2012. "Climbing the Job Ladder: New Evidence of Gender Inequity," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 129-151, 01.
  6. Kurtulus, Fidan Ana & Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald, 2012. "Do Women Top Managers Help Women Advance? A Panel Study Using EEO-1 Records," IZA Discussion Papers 6444, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Bandiera, Oriana & Barankay, Iwan & Rasul, Imran, 2008. "Social Connections and Incentives in the Workplace: Evidence from Personnel Data," IZA Discussion Papers 3917, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Wilkins, Roger & Wooden, Mark, 2011. "Gender Differences in Rates of Job Dismissal: Why Are Men More Likely to Lose Their Jobs?," IZA Discussion Papers 6225, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Fidan Ana Kurtulus & Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, 2011. "Do Women Top Managers Help Women Advance? A Panel Study Using EEO-1 Records," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2011-14, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
  10. Haile, Getinet Astatike, 2012. "Unhappy working with men? Workplace gender diversity and job-related well-being in Britain," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 329-350.
  11. Danilo Coelho & Marcelo Fernandes & Miguel Nathan Foguel, 2007. "Foreign Capital And Gender Differences In Promotions: Evidence From The Brazilian Transformation Industry," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 167, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].

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