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Gender differences in career progression: Does the effect of children capture low work effort?

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  • Kunze, Astrid
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    Abstract

    This study exploits longitudinal employer-employee matched data to investigate gender differences in the probability to climb the job ladder with focus on the effect of children. We attempt to disentangle whether children directly affect promotions, or whether the effect of children is correlated with effort. We find that the probability to progress on the career ladder is decreased for women through children, but not for men. These effects are particularly strong at the lower and medium ranks. We explore whether the effect of children is correlated with several proxies of work effort including whether workers are highly attached or not, hours of work,\ and relative bonus payments. In promotion regressions controllling for these factors we find that the effects of children remain unchanged quantitatively as well qualitatively. If we compare workers with high effort levels above the 60th residual earnings percentile, we find large gender differences in promotion probabilities and it is men with 1-2 children who are most likely to be climb the career ladder. --

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    File URL: http://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/79705/1/VfS_2013_pid_552.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order with number 79705.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79705

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    1. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," NBER Working Papers 11474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    6. David A. Matsa & Amalia R. Miller, 2013. "A Female Style in Corporate Leadership? Evidence from Quotas," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(3), pages 136-69, July.
    7. Nina Smith & Valdemar Smith & Mette Verne, 2011. "The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark: Glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(2), pages 156-177, May.
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    9. Francesconi, Marco, 2001. " Determinants and Consequences of Promotions in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(3), pages 279-310, July.
    10. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2006. "Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001," NBER Working Papers 12691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Arngrim Hunnes & Jarle Møen & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2007. "Wage Structure and Labor Mobility in Norway 1980-1997," NBER Working Papers 12974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Illoong Kwon & Eva Meyersson Milgrom, 2007. "Cohort Effects in Wages and Promotions," Discussion Papers 07-025, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
    13. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162, March.
    14. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
    15. Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
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