Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001
AbstractMany studies have shown that women are under-represented in tenured ranks in the sciences. We evaluate whether gender differences in the likelihood of obtaining a tenure track job, promotion to tenure, and promotion to full professor explain these facts using the 1973-2001 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. We find that women are less likely to take tenure track positions in science, but the gender gap is entirely explained by fertility decisions. We find that in science overall, there is no gender difference in promotion to tenure or full professor after controlling for demographic, family, employer and productivity covariates and that in many cases, there is no gender difference in promotion to tenure or full professor even without controlling for covariates. However, family characteristics have different impacts on women's and men's promotion probabilities. Single women do better at each stage than single men, although this might be due to selection. Children make it less likely that women in science will advance up the academic job ladder beyond their early post-doctorate years, while both marriage and children increase men's likelihood of advancing.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12691.
Date of creation: Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn. "Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001," in Richard B. Freeman and Daniel L. Goroff, editors, "Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment" University of Chicago Press (2009)
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- Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2009. "Does Science Promote Women? Evidence from Academia 1973-2001," NBER Chapters, in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 163-194 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-11-25 (All new papers)
- NEP-KNM-2006-11-25 (Knowledge Management & Knowledge Economy)
- NEP-LAB-2006-11-25 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-SOG-2006-11-25 (Sociology of Economics)
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