IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/hwwadp/26296.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

International mobility of the highly skilled: Brain gain, brain drain or brain exchange

Author

Listed:
  • Straubhaar, Thomas

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to shift the focus from a negative prejudice about immigration towards a much more positive evaluation. More and more the migration pattern changes from a blue-collar migration of low qualified workers towards a whitecollar mobility of highly skilled professionals. It has to be stressed strongly that - strikingly enough - most migrants are relatively well qualified. Just to mention a new IMF study (Carrington/Detragiache 1999:47), the US data show that immigration flows of individuals with no more than a primary education are quite small, and reach only about 500?000 individuals out of a total of 7 million immigrants! ?For most countries, people with a tertiary education have the highest migration rate ... Thus, migrant to the Unites States tend to be better educated than the average person in their home (that is the sending) country, and the proportion of very highly educated people who migrate is particularly high? (Carrington/Detragiache 1999:48). So, these data clearly indicate that there is a substantial brain drain. Another question of quite similar importance is, why the US only should get a brain gain. Why not the EU? The immigration of highly skilled is crucial and decisive for growth and wealth of nations in the 21st century. Once again this is clearly seen and strategically developed in the US. The USA attracts highly skilled people from all over the world because of a number of natural as well as artificial benefits (?sun, sea, and sand?, close relations between industry and universities etc.) and, therefore, experiences a ?Brain Gain? that stimulates growth. In the case of Europe, mobility is mainly intra-European, representing a ?Brain Exchange?. This is being fuelled by the Europeanisation of production and the creation of an internal labour market. However, the EU lacks the magnetic power to attract high skilled foreign scientists and to become leading centres of research intensive (service) production. For Eastern Europe there is a fear of a ?Brain Drain? that will not be directed towards the EU but rather towards the US.

Suggested Citation

  • Straubhaar, Thomas, 2000. "International mobility of the highly skilled: Brain gain, brain drain or brain exchange," HWWA Discussion Papers 88, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:hwwadp:26296
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/19463/1/88.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 92-96, May.
    3. Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-970, December.
    4. Bhagwati, Jagdish & Dellalfar, William, 1973. "The brain drain and income taxation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 1(1-2), pages 94-101, February.
    5. Bhagwati, Jagdish & Rodriguez, Carlos, 1975. "Welfare-theoretical analyses of the brain drain," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 195-221, September.
    6. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    7. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    8. Romer, Paul M, 1987. "Growth Based on Increasing Returns Due to Specialization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 56-62, May.
    9. Berry, R Albert & Soligo, Ronald, 1969. "Some Welfare Aspects of International Migration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(5), pages 778-794, Sept./Oct.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:icb:wpaper:v:4:y:2017:i:1:198-203 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Searing, Elizabeth A.M. & Rios-Avila, Fernando & Lecy, Jesse D., 2013. "The impact of psychological trauma on wages in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 165-173.
    3. P. Giannoccolo, 2003. "Brain Drain and Fiscal Competition. A theoretical model for the Europe," Working Papers 481, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    4. Thomas Lange, 2009. "Return migration of foreign students and the choice of non-resident tuition fees," ifo Working Paper Series 74, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    5. Michael Knogler & Volkhart Vincentz, 2004. "EU-Erweiterung : Die wirtschaftliche Beitrittsfähigkeit der Balkanländer," Working Papers 249, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    6. Bildirici, M. & Orcan, M. & Sunal, S. & Aykaç, E., 2005. "Determinants of Human Capital Theory, Growth and Brain Drain: An Econometric Analysis for 77 Countries," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 5(2).
    7. repec:cbu:jrnlec:y:2017:v:3:p:26-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Boncea Irina, 2013. "Medical Brain Drain - A Theoretical Approach," Annals of Faculty of Economics, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1(1), pages 64-71, July.
    9. Peter Schaeffer, 2005. "Human capital, migration strategy, and brain drain," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 319-335.
    10. Ernest MIGUELEZ & Claudia NOUMEDEM TEMGOUA, 2017. "Immigration externalities, knowledge flows and brain gain," Cahiers du GREThA 2017-07, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    11. Pierpaolo Giannoccolo, 2003. "Brain Drain and Fiscal Competition: a Theoretical Model for Europe," Working Papers 20060602, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Statistica, revised Jun 2006.
    12. Qin, Fei, 2015. "Global talent, local careers: Circular migration of top Indian engineers and professionals," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 405-420.
    13. D'Costa, Anthony P., 2006. "The International Mobility of Technical Talent: Trends and Development Implications," WIDER Working Paper Series 143, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Wink, Ruediger, 2002. "The transregional dimension of territorial knowledge management. An evolutionary perspective on the role of universities," ERSA conference papers ersa02p496, European Regional Science Association.
    15. Jan Kranich, 2008. "R&D and the agglomeration of industries," Working Paper Series in Economics 83, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    16. Anthony P. D'Costa, 2006. "The International Mobility of Technical Talent: Trends and Development Implications," Working Papers id:778, eSocialSciences.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:hwwadp:26296. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/hwwaade.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.