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Gender Discrimination and the International Division of Labour


  • Busse, Matthias
  • Spielmann, Christian


The paper empirically explores the international economic effects of gender discrimination, namely the linkages of gender inequality with comparative advantage (trade) and foreign direct investment flows. It discusses different forms and the extent of gender discrimination across countries and presents the results of empirical tests of those linkages. The results indicate that gender inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in unskilled-labour-intensive goods, that is, commodities where the impact of gender bias is likely to be felt most strongly. In contrast, foreign direct investment is negatively linked with gender inequality. These results even hold for relatively poor developing countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Busse, Matthias & Spielmann, Christian, 2003. "Gender Discrimination and the International Division of Labour," HWWA Discussion Papers 245, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:hwwadp:26151

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Eric Neumayer & Indra de Soysa, 2007. "Globalisation, Women's Economic Rights and Forced Labour," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(10), pages 1510-1535, October.
    2. Remco H. Oostendorp, 2009. "Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(1), pages 141-161, January.
    3. Neumayer, Eric & de Soysa, Indra, 2011. "Globalization and the Empowerment of Women: An Analysis of Spatial Dependence via Trade and Foreign Direct Investment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 1065-1075, July.

    More about this item


    Gender Discrimination; Trade; Comparative Advantage; FDI;

    JEL classification:

    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition


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