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FDI liberalization, firm heterogeneity and foreign ownership: German firm decisions in reforming India

  • Görg, Holger
  • Mühlen, Henning
  • Nunnenkamp, Peter

The paper investigates the role of firm-level productivity and industry-level R&D for MNEs' choice of undertaking FDI, and the share of ownership in foreign affiliates. Two firm-specific datasets on German MNEs with varying equity stakes in Indian affiliates are used to account for the two-step decision process. The paper also analyses how German firm decisions were affected by the liberalisation of FDI regulations in India. Results show remarkable differences between the selection and the ownership share equation, and also between the pre-reform and post-reform periods. The evidence clearly reveals the tradeoffs involved in selective FDI approvals and foreign ownership restrictions.

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Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics in its series Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 with number 35.

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Date of creation: 2010
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:gdec10:35
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  1. Marin, Dalia & Lorentowicz, Andzelika & Raubold, Alexander, 2002. "Ownership, Capital or Outsourcing: What Drives German Investment to Eastern Europe?," Discussion Papers in Economics 72, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  2. Markusen, James R., 2002. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MPRA Paper 8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Kochhar, Kalpana & Kumar, Utsav & Rajan, Raghuram & Subramanian, Arvind & Tokatlidis, Ioannis, 2006. "India's pattern of development: What happened, what follows?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(5), pages 981-1019, July.
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  7. Ingo Geishecker & Holger Görg & Daria Taglioni, 2009. "Characterising Euro Area Multinationals," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(1), pages 49-76, 01.
  8. Nakamura, M. & Xie, J., 1998. "Nonverifiability, noncontractibility and ownership determination models in foreign direct investment, with an application to foreign operations in Japan," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 571-599, September.
  9. Horst Raff & Michael Ryan & Frank Stähler, 2012. "Firm Productivity and the Foreign-Market Entry Decision," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 849-871, 09.
  10. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-175820 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Stähler, Frank & Ryan, Michael & Raff, Horst, 2007. "Whole versus Shared Ownership of Foreign Affiliates," Economics Working Papers 2007,18, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  12. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
  13. Jean-François Hennart, 1991. "The Transaction Costs Theory of Joint Ventures: An Empirical Study of Japanese Subsidiaries in the United States," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(4), pages 483-497, April.
  14. Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska & Spatareanu, Mariana, 2008. "To share or not to share: Does local participation matter for spillovers from foreign direct investment?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 194-217, February.
  15. Desai, Mihir A. & Foley, C. Fritz & Hines, James Jr., 2004. "The costs of shared ownership: Evidence from international joint ventures," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 323-374, August.
  16. Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim, 2009. "Investor protections and economic growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 1-4, April.
  17. Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, 1989. "Ownership structures of foreign subsidiaries : Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-25, January.
  18. Magnus Blomstrom & Mario Zejan, 1989. "Why Do Multinational Firms Seek Out Joint Ventures?," NBER Working Papers 2987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  20. Elizabeth Asiedu & Hadi Salehi Esfahani, 2001. "Ownership Structure In Foreign Direct Investment Projects," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 647-662, November.
  21. Manuel Agosin & Roberto Machado, 2007. "Openness and the International allocation of foreign direct investment," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(7), pages 1234-1247.
  22. Vidya Mahambare & V. N. Balasubramanyam, 2005. "FDI in India," International Trade 0505007, EconWPA.
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