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Ownership, Capital or Outsourcing: What Drives German Investment to Eastern Europe?

Author

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  • Marin, Dalia
  • Lorentowicz, Andzelika
  • Raubold, Alexander

Abstract

The paper takes a first look at the host and home country effects of German FDI in Eastern Europe (EE) based on new survey data of 1050 investment projects in EE by 420 German multinationals during the 1990s. We find that German investors transfer a substantial amount of financial capital to EE. Furthermore, the most dynamic and innovative segment of the German economy invests in the East which explains why single owned firms dominate as the form of control. We also find strong evidence of vertical FDI suggesting that German cororations are outsourcing a substantial share of their production to EE affiliates to exploit lower wages in the East.

Suggested Citation

  • Marin, Dalia & Lorentowicz, Andzelika & Raubold, Alexander, 2002. "Ownership, Capital or Outsourcing: What Drives German Investment to Eastern Europe?," Discussion Papers in Economics 72, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:lmu:muenec:72
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Perotti, E. C., 1998. "Inertial credit and opportunistic arrears in transition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 1703-1725, November.
    2. Williamson, Oliver E, 1983. "Credible Commitments: Using Hostages to Support Exchange," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 519-540, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lorentowicz, Andzelika & Marin, Dalia & Raubold, Alexander, 2005. "Is Human Capital Losing from Outsourcing? Evidence for Austria and Poland," CEPR Discussion Papers 5344, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Marin, Dalia, 2004. "‘A Nation of Poets and Thinkers’ - Less So with Eastern Enlargement? Austria and Germany," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 77, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    3. Hübler, Michael, 2007. "A simple model of outsourcing with Cournot competition," Kiel Working Papers 1320, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    4. Marin, Dalia & Schnitzer, Monika, 2011. "When is FDI a capital flow?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(6), pages 845-861, August.
    5. Holger Gorg & Henning Muhlen & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2010. "FDI Liberalisation, Firm Heterogeneity and Foreign Ownership: German Firm Decisions in Reforming India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(8), pages 1367-1384.
    6. Dalia Marin, 2006. "A New International Division of Labor in Europe: Outsourcing and Offshoring to Eastern Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 612-622, 04-05.
    7. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & John Kay & Seppo Honkapohja & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2005. "Chapter 2: Outsourcing," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo Group Munich, vol. 0, pages 39-50, March.
    8. Müller, Thomas, 2003. "The Multinational Enterprise," Munich Dissertations in Economics 799, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    9. Marin, Dalia, 2005. "A New International Division of Labor in Europe: Offshoring and Outsourcing to Eastern Europe," Discussion Papers in Economics 714, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    10. Mockaitis, Audra I. & Vaiginiene, Erika & Giedraitis, Vincent, 2006. "The internationalization efforts of lithuanian manufacturing firms--strategy or luck?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, pages 111-126.
    11. Haselmann, Rainer, 2006. "Strategies of foreign banks in transition economies," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 283-299, December.
    12. Diemo Dietrich, 2004. "Financing FDI into Developing Economies and the International Transmission of Business Cycle Fluctuations," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 140(IV), pages 449-481, December.
    13. Lefilleur, Julien & Maurel, Mathilde, 2010. "Inter- and intra-industry linkages as a determinant of FDI in Central and Eastern Europe," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 309-330, September.
    14. Petr Kral, 2004. "Identification and Measurement of Relationships Concerning Inflow of FDI: The Case of the Czech Republic," Working Papers 2004/05, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    15. Marin, Dalia, 2004. "A Nation of Poets and Thinkers - Less so with Eastern Enlargement? Austria and Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 4358, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. repec:zbw:iwhdps:165 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Barry, Frank & Walsh, Frank, 2008. "Gains and losses from sectoral relocation: A review of theory and empirics," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 4-16, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    capital flows ; vertical vs. horizontal FDI ; corporate governance ; globalization ; Eastern Enlargement;

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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