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Technological leadership and foreign investors'choice of entry mode


  • Smarzynska, Beata K.


Developing country governments tend to favor joint ventures over other forms of foreign direct investment, believing that local participation facilitates the transfer of technology, and marketing skills. The author assesses joint ventures'potential for such transfers by comparing the characteristics of foreign investors engaged in joint ventures with those of foreign investors engaged in wholly owned projects in transition economies in the early 1990s. Unlike the existing literature, the author focuses on intra-industry differences rather than inter-industry differences in research and development, and advertising intensity. Empirical analysis shows that foreign investors who are technological, or marketing leaders in their industries, are more likely to invest in wholly owned projects than to share ownership. This is true in high- and medium-technology sectors, but not in industries with low research and development spending. The author concludes that it is inappropriate to treat industries as homogeneous in investigating modes of investment. She also suggests that in sectors with high research and development spending, joint ventures may present less potential for transfer of technology, and marketing techniques than wholly owned subsidiaries.

Suggested Citation

  • Smarzynska, Beata K., 2000. "Technological leadership and foreign investors'choice of entry mode," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2314, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2314

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    9. Miller, R-R & Glen, J-D & Jaspersen, F-Z & Karmokolias, Y, 1996. "International Joint Ventures in Developing Countries. Happy Marriages?," Papers 29, World Bank - International Finance Corporation.
    10. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
    11. Djankov, Simeon & Hoekman, Bernard, 1997. "Competition Law in Post-Central Planning Bulgaria," CEPR Discussion Papers 1723, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Ignatius Horstmann & James R. Markusen, 1987. "Licensing versus Direct Investment: A Model of Internalization by the Multinational Enterprise," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 20(3), pages 464-481, August.
    13. Benjamin Gomes-Casseres, 1990. "Firm Ownership Preferences and Host Government Restrictions: An Integrated Approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, March.
    14. Djankov, Simeon & Hoekman, Bernard, 1998. "Avenues of Technology Transfer: Foreign Investment and Productivity Change in the Czech Republic," CEPR Discussion Papers 1883, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Boyes, William J. & Hoffman, Dennis L. & Low, Stuart A., 1989. "An econometric analysis of the bank credit scoring problem," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 3-14, January.
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    17. Javorcik, Beata, 1999. "Composition of Foreign Direct Investment and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Transition Economies," CEPR Discussion Papers 2228, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bartlomiej Kaminski & Beata Smarzynska, 2001. "Integration into Global Production and Distribution Networks through FDI: The Case of Poland," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 265-288.
    2. Kaminski, Bartlomiej & Smarzynska, Beata K., 2001. "Foreign direct investment and integration into global production and distribution networks : the case of Poland," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2646, The World Bank.


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