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Approximating fixed-horizon forecasts using fixed-event forecasts

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  • Knüppel, Malte
  • Vladu, Andreea L.

Abstract

In recent years, survey-based measures of expectations and disagreement have received increasing attention in economic research. Many forecast surveys ask their participants for fixed-event forecasts. Since fixed-event forecasts have seasonal properties, researchers often use an ad-hoc approach in order to approximate fixed-horizon forecasts using fixed-event forecasts. In this work, we derive an optimal approximation by minimizing the mean-squared approximation error. Like the approximation based on the ad-hoc approach, our approximation is constructed as a weighted sum of the fixed-event forecasts, with easily computable weights. The optimal weights tend to differ substantially from those of the ad-hoc approach. In an empirical application, it turns out that the gains from using optimal instead of ad-hoc weights are very pronounced. While our work focusses on the approximation of fixedhorizon forecasts by fixed-event forecasts, the proposed approximation method is very flexible. The forecast to be approximated as well as the information employed by the approximation can be any linear function of the underlying high-frequency variable. In contrast to the ad-hoc approach, the proposed approximation method can make use of more than two such informationcontaining functions.

Suggested Citation

  • Knüppel, Malte & Vladu, Andreea L., 2016. "Approximating fixed-horizon forecasts using fixed-event forecasts," Discussion Papers 28/2016, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdps:282016
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Joscha Beckmann & Robert L. Czudaj, 2018. "Monetary Policy Shocks, Expectations, And Information Rigidities," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 56(4), pages 2158-2176, October.
    2. Barbara Rossi & Tatevik Sekhposyan, 2017. "Macroeconomic uncertainty indices for the Euro Area and its individual member countries," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 41-62, August.
    3. Hoffmann, Mathias & Hürtgen, Patrick, 2016. "Inflation expectations, disagreement, and monetary policy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 59-63.
    4. Reifschneider, David & Tulip, Peter, 2019. "Gauging the uncertainty of the economic outlook using historical forecasting errors: The Federal Reserve’s approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1564-1582.
    5. Camba-Méndez, Gonzalo & Werner, Thomas, 2017. "The inflation risk premium in the post-Lehman period," Working Paper Series 2033, European Central Bank.
    6. Jitmaneeroj, Boonlert & Lamla, Michael J. & Wood, Andrew, 2019. "The implications of central bank transparency for uncertainty and disagreement," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 222-240.
    7. David Reifschneider & Peter Tulip, 2017. "Gauging the Uncertainty of the Economic Outlook Using Historical Forecasting Errors: The Federal Reserve's Approach," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp2017-01, Reserve Bank of Australia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    survey expectations; forecast disagreement;

    JEL classification:

    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

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