This paper offers a noncooperative behaviourally-founded solution of the complete information bargaining problem where two impatient individuals wish to divide a unit pie. We formulate the game in continuous time, with unrestricted timing and content of offers. Reprising experimental work from 1960, we introduce and explore aspirational equilibrium -- a Markovian refinement of subgame perfection where behaviour is governed by aspiration values (expected payoffs). The analysis is tractable, and generates many intuitive aspects of bargaining absent from the standard temporal monopoly paradigm: wars of attrition explains delay; serious offers are concessions; offers may be turned down, strictly disappointing the proposers, or accepted, strictly helping the proposer. In particular, an endogenous `proposee' advantage arises, as opposed to the hard-wired proposer standard advantage. We find that discounted aspiration values form a martingale, and thereby compute bounds on the expected bargaining duration from observed offers. We also deduce some simple implications about consecutive offers, and relate delay times, offers, and acceptance rates. Finally, we draw into question a traditional comparative static: Ceteris paribus, more impatient players can expect more of the pie.
|Date of creation:||23 Jan 2002|
|Note:||Type of Document - Adobe acrobat [pdf]; prepared on IBM PC; to print on HP/PostScript; pages: 32 ; figures: included|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Itzhak Gilboa & David Schmeidler, 2001.
"Reaction to Price Changes and Aspiration Level Adjustments,"
- David Schmeidler & Itzhak Gilboa, 1994. "Reaction to Price Changes and Aspiration Level Adjustments," Working Papers 023, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Itzhak Gilboa & David Schmeidler, 1994. "Reaction to Price Changes and Aspiration Level Adjustments," Discussion Papers 1110, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Dilip Abreu & David Pearce, 2003. "A Behavioral Model of Bargaining with Endogenous Types," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1446, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Simon, Leo K. & Stinchcombe, Maxwell B., 1987.
"Extensive From Games in Continuous Time: Pure Strategies,"
Department of Economics, Working Paper Series
qt03x115sh, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Simon, Leo K & Stinchcombe, Maxwell B, 1989. "Extensive Form Games in Continuous Time: Pure Strategies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1171-1214, September.
- Leo K. Simon and Maxwell B. Stinchcombe., 1987. "Extensive Form Games in Continuous Time: Pure Strategies," Economics Working Papers 8746, University of California at Berkeley.
- Dilip Abreu & Faruk Gul, 2000.
"Bargaining and Reputation,"
Econometric Society, vol. 68(1), pages 85-118, January.
- Debraj Ray & Dilip Mookherjee & Fernando Vega Redondo & Rajeeva L. Karandikar, 1996.
"Evolving aspirations and cooperation,"
Working Papers. Serie AD
1996-06, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Stahl, Dale II, 1993. "Strategic choice of waiting and reaction times in bargaining," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 31-34.
- Ariel Rubinstein, 2010.
"Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
252, David K. Levine.
- Fershtman Chaim & Seidmann Daniel J., 1993. "Deadline Effects and Inefficient Delay in Bargaining with Endogenous Commitment," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 306-321, August.
- Drew Fudenberg & Jean Tirole, 1985. "Preemption and Rent Equalization in the Adoption of New Technology," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(3), pages 383-401.
- Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1994. "Comparing Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 441-59, June.
- Sakovics Jozsef, 1993. "Delay in Bargaining Games with Complete Information," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 78-95, February.
- Bergin, James & MacLeod, W Bentley, 1993. "Continuous Time Repeated Games," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(1), pages 21-37, February.
- Perry Motty & Reny Philip J., 1993. "A Non-cooperative Bargaining Model with Strategically Timed Offers," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 50-77, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpga:0201003. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.