IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wpa/wuwpfi/0509014.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Credit ratings and the standardised approach to credit risk in Basel II

Author

Listed:
  • Patrick Van Roy

    (National Bank of Belgium, Brussels)

Abstract

This paper focuses on the standardised approach to credit risk in Basel II. The minimum capital requirements for the corporate, interbank and sovereign loan portfolios of a representative bank in each EMU country are evaluated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations depending on the credit rating agencies chosen by the bank to risk-weight its exposures. Three main results emerge from the analysis. First, although the use of different combinations of credit rating agencies leads to significant differences in minimum capital requirements, these differences never exceed 10% of banks’ regulatory capital for loans to corporates, banks and sovereigns on average in the EMU. Second, the standardised approach provides a small regulatory capital incentive for banks to use several credit rating agencies to risk-weight their exposures. Third, the minimum capital requirements for the corporate, interbank and sovereign loan portfolios of EMU banks will be higher in Basel II than in Basel I. I also show that the incentive for banks to engage in regulatory arbitrage in the standardised approach to credit risk is limited.

Suggested Citation

  • Patrick Van Roy, 2005. "Credit ratings and the standardised approach to credit risk in Basel II," Finance 0509014, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0509014
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 45
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de/econ-wp/fin/papers/0509/0509014.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Upper, Christian & Worms, Andreas, 2004. "Estimating bilateral exposures in the German interbank market: Is there a danger of contagion?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 827-849, August.
    2. Jacobson, Tor & Linde, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2006. "Internal ratings systems, implied credit risk and the consistency of banks' risk classification policies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1899-1926, July.
    3. Ferri, Giovanni & Liu, Li-Gang & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2001. "The role of rating agency assessments in less developed countries: Impact of the proposed Basel guidelines," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 115-148, January.
    4. Altman, Edward I. & Saunders, Anthony, 2001. "An analysis and critique of the BIS proposal on capital adequacy and ratings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 25-46, January.
    5. Richard Cantor & Frank Packer, 1995. "Sovereign credit ratings," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 1(Jun).
    6. Alexis Derviz & Narcisa Kadlcakova & Lucie Kobzova, 2003. "Credit Risk, Systemic Uncertainties and Economic Capital Requirements for an Artificial Bank Loan Portfolio," Working Papers 2003/09, Czech National Bank.
    7. Mark Carey, 1998. "Credit Risk in Private Debt Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1363-1387, August.
    8. Sironi, Andrea, 2003. "Testing for Market Discipline in the European Banking Industry: Evidence from Subordinated Debt Issues," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(3), pages 443-472, June.
    9. Cantor, Richard & Packer, Frank, 1997. "Differences of opinion and selection bias in the credit rating industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(10), pages 1395-1417, October.
    10. C. H. Furfine & Jeffery D. Amato, 2003. "Are credit ratings procyclical?," BIS Working Papers 129, Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Altman, Edward I. & Bharath, Sreedhar T. & Saunders, Anthony, 2002. "Credit ratings and the BIS capital adequacy reform agenda," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 909-921, May.
    12. Jesús Saurina & Carlos Trucharte, 2004. "The Impact of Basel II on Lending to Small- and Medium-Sized Firms: A Regulatory Policy Assessment Based on Spanish Credit Register Data," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 121-144, October.
    13. Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2000. "What Determines the Number of Bank Relationships? Cross-Country Evidence," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 26-56, January.
    14. Tabakis, Evangelos & Vinci, Anna, 2002. "Analysing and combining multiple credit assessments of financial institutions," Working Paper Series 123, European Central Bank.
    15. Nancy Masschelein, 2003. "The Basel II Capital Accord, SME Loans and Implications for Belgium," Financial Stability Review, National Bank of Belgium, vol. 1(1), pages 151-172, June.
    16. Santos, Joao A.C., 2006. "Why firm access to the bond market differs over the business cycle: A theory and some evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 2715-2736, October.
    17. Donald P. Morgan, 2002. "Rating Banks: Risk and Uncertainty in an Opaque Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 874-888, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Miles Livingston & Jie (Diana) Wei & Lei Zhou, 2010. "Moody's and S&P Ratings: Are They Equivalent? Conservative Ratings and Split Rated Bond Yields," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(7), pages 1267-1293, October.
    2. Kocsis, Zalán & Mosolygó, Zsuzsa, 2006. "A devizakötvény-felárak és a hitelminősítések összefüggése - keresztmetszeti elemzés. A cross-section analysis [The relationship of international bond spreads and sovereign credit ratings]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(9), pages 769-798.
    3. Iftekhar Hasan & Suk-Joong Kim & Eliza Wu, 2018. "The Effects of Ratings-Contingent Regulation on International Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from the Basel 2 Accord," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Information Spillovers and Market Integration in International Finance Empirical Analyses, chapter 16, pages 547-603, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Hasan, Iftekhar & Hassan, Gazi & Kim, Suk-Joong & Wu, Eliza, 2021. "The real impact of ratings-based capital rules on the finance-growth nexus," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    5. Sami Ben Naceur & Magda Kandil, 2013. "Has the Basel Capital Requirement Caused Credit Crunch in the Mena Region?," Middle East Development Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2), pages 1350014-131, January.
    6. Akhtar, S. & Bannier, C. & Tyrell, M. & Elizalde, A. & Janda, K. & Lind, G., 2008. "Basel II, External Ratings and Adverse Selection," MPRA Paper 12722, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Drago, Danilo & Gallo, Raffaele, 2018. "Do multiple credit ratings affect syndicated loan spreads?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1-16.
    8. Lukasz Prorokowski, 2017. "Analysing revisions to the standardised approach in credit risk. Evidence from sovereigns," Bank i Kredyt, Narodowy Bank Polski, vol. 48(3), pages 235-262.
    9. Johann Jacobs & Gary Vuuren, 2014. "A Case for Economic Capital as a Pillar 1 Regulatory Tool," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(2), pages 290-314, June.
    10. Yukiko Konno & Yuki Itoh, 2016. "An alternative to the standardized approach for assessing credit risk under the Basel Accords," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 1220119-122, December.
    11. Hauck, Achim & Neyer, Ulrike, 2014. "Disagreement between rating agencies and bond opacity: A theoretical perspective," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 82-85.
    12. repec:zbw:bofrdp:2014_025 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Iftekhar Hasan & Suk-Joong Kim & Eliza Wu, 2018. "The Effects of Ratings-Contingent Regulation on International Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from the Basel 2 Accord," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Information Spillovers and Market Integration in International Finance Empirical Analyses, chapter 16, pages 547-603, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    14. Tewari, Manish & Byrd, Anthony & Ramanlal, Pradipkumar, 2015. "Callable bonds, reinvestment risk, and credit rating improvements: Role of the call premium," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 349-360.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Shen, Chung-Hua & Huang, Yu-Li & Hasan, Iftekhar, 2012. "Asymmetric benchmarking in bank credit rating," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 171-193.
    2. Sorge, Marco & Virolainen, Kimmo, 2006. "A comparative analysis of macro stress-testing methodologies with application to Finland," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 113-151, June.
    3. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Schuermann, Til & Treutler, Bjorn-Jakob & Weiner, Scott M., 2006. "Macroeconomic Dynamics and Credit Risk: A Global Perspective," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(5), pages 1211-1261, August.
    4. Adrian Pop, 2009. "Beyond the Third Pillar of Basel Two: Taking Bond Market Signals Seriously," Working Papers hal-00419241, HAL.
    5. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Matousek, Roman & Stewart, Chris, 2012. "Ratings assignments: Lessons from international banks," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1593-1606.
    6. Roman Kraeussl, "undated". "A Critique on the Proposed Use of External Sovereign Credit Ratings in Basel II," Working Papers 0315, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    7. Salvador, Carlos & Fernández de Guevara, Juan & Pastor, José Manuel, 2018. "The adjustment of bank ratings in the financial crisis: International evidence," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 289-313.
    8. Susan K. Schroeder, 2008. "The Underpinnings Of Country Risk Assessment," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 498-535, July.
    9. Bliss, Robert, 2002. "Comments on "Credit ratings and the BIS capital adequacy reform agenda"," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 923-928, May.
    10. Miles Livingston & Andy Naranjo & Lei Zhou, 2007. "Asset Opaqueness and Split Bond Ratings," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 49-62, September.
    11. Linda Allen & Anthony Saunders, 2004. "Incorporating Systemic Influences Into Risk Measurements: A Survey of the Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 161-191, October.
    12. Jacobson, Tor & Linde, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2006. "Internal ratings systems, implied credit risk and the consistency of banks' risk classification policies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1899-1926, July.
    13. Rasha Alsakka & Owain ap Gwilym, 2010. "The Extent and Causes of Sovereign Split Ratings," Working Papers 10008, Bangor Business School, Prifysgol Bangor University (Cymru / Wales).
    14. André Güttler, 2005. "Using a Bootstrap Approach to Rate the Raters," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 19(3), pages 277-295, October.
    15. Tor Jacobson & Jesper Lindé & Kasper Roszbach, 2005. "Credit Risk Versus Capital Requirements under Basel II: Are SME Loans and Retail Credit Really Different?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 28(1), pages 43-75, October.
    16. Dion Bongaerts & K. J. Martijn Cremers & William N. Goetzmann, 2012. "Tiebreaker: Certification and Multiple Credit Ratings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(1), pages 113-152, February.
    17. Craig Furfine, 2001. "Bank Portfolio Allocation: The Impact of Capital Requirements, Regulatory Monitoring, and Economic Conditions," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 20(1), pages 33-56, September.
    18. Alexandr Karminsky & Anatoly Peresetsky, 2009. "Ratings as Measure of Financial Risk: Evolution, Function and Usage," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, issue 1-2, pages 86-102.
    19. Jiang, Xianfeng & Packer, Frank, 2019. "Credit ratings of Chinese firms by domestic and global agencies: Assessing the determinants and impact," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 178-193.
    20. van Soest, A.H.O. & Peresetsky, A. & Karminsky, A.M., 2003. "An Analysis of Ratings of Russian Banks," Discussion Paper 2003-85, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    New Basel Accord; capital requirements; credit rating agencies;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G - Financial Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0509014. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: EconWPA (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.