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Ratings as Measure of Financial Risk: Evolution, Function and Usage


  • Alexandr Karminsky

    () (Gazprombank, NES, Moscow, Russia)

  • Anatoly Peresetsky

    () (Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, RAS, NES, Moscow, Russia)


The rating agencies were emerged by the demand from market economy. Such agencies take the job of independent evaluation of the firms' financial strength, which allow firms decrease their expenses on their own market monitoring. It is extremely important with increasing number of potential business partners. The paper discusses history of rating business, methods of assigning ratings, rating classification, function and the directions of use.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexandr Karminsky & Anatoly Peresetsky, 2009. "Ratings as Measure of Financial Risk: Evolution, Function and Usage," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, issue 1-2, pages 86-102.
  • Handle: RePEc:nea:journl:y:2009:i:1-2:p:86-102

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Richard Cantor & Frank Packer, 1995. "Multiple ratings and credit standards: differences of opinion in the credit rating industry," Research Paper 9527, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    2. Moon, Choon-Geol & Stotsky, Janet G, 1993. "Testing the Differences between the Determinants of Moody's and Standard & Poor's Ratings: An Application of Smooth Simulated Maximum Likelihood Estimation," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(1), pages 51-69, Jan.-Marc.
    3. Kish, Richard J. & Hogan, Karen M. & Olson, Gerard, 1999. "Does the market perceive a difference in rating agencies?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 363-377.
    4. Poon, Winnie P. H., 2003. "Are unsolicited credit ratings biased downward?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 593-614, April.
    5. Livingston, Miles & Naranjo, Andy & Zhou, Lei, 2008. "Split bond ratings and rating migration," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1613-1624, August.
    6. Altman, Edward I, 1989. " Measuring Corporate Bond Mortality and Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 909-922, September.
    7. Altman, Edward I. & Rijken, Herbert A., 2004. "How rating agencies achieve rating stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 2679-2714, November.
    8. Miles Livingston & Andy Naranjo & Lei Zhou, 2007. "Asset Opaqueness and Split Bond Ratings," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 49-62, September.
    9. Cantor, Richard & Packer, Frank, 1997. "Differences of opinion and selection bias in the credit rating industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(10), pages 1395-1417, October.
    10. Donald P. Morgan, 2002. "Rating Banks: Risk and Uncertainty in an Opaque Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 874-888, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Alexander Karminsky & Richard Hainsworth & Vasily Solodkov, 2013. "Arm’s Length Method for Comparing Rating Scales," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 3(2), pages 114-135, December.
    2. Balatsky, E. & Ekimova, N., 2012. "The Global University Rankings: the Problem of Manipulation," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 126-146.
    3. Alexander Karminsky, 2016. "Rating models: emerging market distinctions," Papers 1607.02422,

    More about this item


    Ratings; rating agencies; risk evaluation;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage


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