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Has The Basel Capital Requirement Caused Credit Crunch In The Mena Region?

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  • SAMI BEN NACEUR

    () (Middle East and Central Asia Department, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, USA)

  • MAGDA KANDIL

    () (Western Hemisphere Department, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, USA)

Abstract

The 1988 Basel I Accord set the common requirements of bank capital to promote the soundness and stability of the international banking system. The agreement required banks to hold capital in proportion to their perceived credit risks, and this requirement may have caused a “credit crunch,” a significant reduction in the supply of credit. We investigate the direct link between the implementation of the Basel I Accord and lending activities, using a data set spanning annual observations covering 1989–2004 for banks in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia. The results provide clear support for a significant increase in credit growth following the implementation of capital regulations, in general. Despite higher capital adequacy ratios, banks expanded credit and asset growth. Credit growth appears to be driven by demand fluctuations attributed to real growth, cost of borrowing, and exchange rate risk. Overall, the effects of macroeconomic variables, in contrast to capital adequacy, appear to be more dominant in determining credit growth, regardless of the capital adequacy ratio, and regardless of variation across banks by nationality, ownership, and listing.

Suggested Citation

  • Sami Ben Naceur & Magda Kandil, 2013. "Has The Basel Capital Requirement Caused Credit Crunch In The Mena Region?," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 5(02), pages 1-33.
  • Handle: RePEc:wsi:medjxx:v:05:y:2013:i:02:n:s1793812013500144
    DOI: 10.1142/S1793812013500144
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ghosh, Saibal, 2018. "Bad luck, Bad policy or Bad banking? Understanding the financial management behavior of MENA banks," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 47, pages 110-128.
    2. Ghosh, Saibal, 2019. "Loan delinquency in banking systems: How effective are credit reporting systems?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 220-236.
    3. PRAO YAO Seraphin & Kamalan Eugène, 2018. "Bank Capital and Credit Supply in Ivory Coast: Evidence from an ARDLBounds Testing Approach," International Journal of Economics and Financial Research, Academic Research Publishing Group, vol. 4(5), pages 99-106, 05-2018.

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