The transregional dimension of territorial knowledge management. An evolutionary perspective on the role of universities
During the last decades, research on regional innovation processes has turned its focus on the relevance of knowledge as a decisive factor to explain regional growth. New Economic Geography as well as new models of regional economics stressed the advan-tages of unique regional structures with locally bounded knowledge and systems to ex-change experiential knowledge via different forms of direct communication. Network effects lead to advantages of metropolitan regions within international competition. From an evolutionary institutional economics' perspective, the development and changes of formal and informal institutional arrangements have to be investigated, enabling regional actors to co-operate on a medium-to-long-term basis and overcoming free-rider incentives and cognitive barriers to identification of tacit knowledge. For uni-versities, two important functions within these knowledge networks occur. Firstly, universities serve as sources for new research experiences. Secondly, universities 'produce' highly skilled human capital, increasing directly the absorptive capacity of the region and making it easier for regional companies to get access to this mobile group. It is the first objective of the proposed paper to explain this role within an approach to deal with knowledge on a regional level called 'Territorial Knowledge Management'. This intraregional perspective, however, reflects only one side of the 'coin' of success-ful regional knowledge networks. Without interregional exchange of experiential knowledge, risks of functional lock-in-processes increase leading to policies of preventing necessary structural changes and incentives for companies and highly skilled persons to leave the regions. But learning by interregional exchange of knowledge can only be realised successfully if interpersonal face-to-face contacts and common communication structures and codes exist. Within regions, implicit institutions like trust and reciprocity help to overcome barriers to build up network structures but depend on a 'closeness' of networks. Therefore, interregional knowledge networks require new (and specific) institutional arrangements. Geographical proximity will be less important for interregional knowledge transfers than institutional and cultural proximity, which has a direct influence on cognitive structures within companies, R&D institutes and universities. What is the special role of universities in this context, and how can universities react to new challenges of interregional openness? These are the leading research questions of the proposed paper. As international competition increases in markets for education and research, universities have to strengthen their specific core competencies and look out for suitable strategies. The paper shall give hints how and why these strategies have to be coordinated with activities within regional knowledge networks. Four university-specific strategies to promote interregional transfer of knowledge are presented and analysed, representing different objectives, target groups and instruments: strategic ap-pointments of foreign professors, further international co-operation in the fields of research, courses and degrees, internationalisation of research and education by building up international franchise systems, and strengthening alumni networks. These strategies are investigated on the basis of a theoretical (evolutionary) model as well as by giving a survey on existing case studies. It is not the objective of the paper to evaluate the impact of these strategies for universities alone, but for regional processes of generating, applying, diffusing, and adapting knowledge, and for the emerging geographical pattern of interregional co-operation in the enlarging Europe. Finally, prerequisites are identified to secure positive impact of university's internationalisation strategies on regional absorptive capacities.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.ersa.org
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David Aschauer, 1988.
"Is public expenditure productive?,"
88-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Takalo, Tuomas & Kanniainen, Vesa, 2000. "Do patents slow down technological progress?: Real options in research, patenting, and market introduction," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1105-1127, October.
- Lundvall, Bengt-Ake & Johnson, Bjorn & Andersen, Esben Sloth & Dalum, Bent, 2002. "National systems of production, innovation and competence building," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 213-231, February.
- Nonaka, Ikujiro & Toyama, Ryoko & Nagata, Akiya, 2000. "A Firm as a Knowledge-Creating Entity: A New Perspective on the Theory of the Firm," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(1), pages 1-20, March.
- Nicholas Economides, 1995.
"The Economics of Networks,"
94-24, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics, revised Sep 1995.
- Nicholas Economides, 1997. "The Economics of Networks," Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, vol. 1(0), December.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1996. "The economics of networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 673-699, October.
- Godin, Benoit & Gingras, Yves, 2000. "The place of universities in the system of knowledge production," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 273-278, February.
- Feller, Irwin & Ailes, Catherine P. & Roessner, J. David, 2002. "Impacts of research universities on technological innovation in industry: evidence from engineering research centers," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 457-474, March.
- Langlois, Richard N & Foss, Nicolai J, 1999.
"Capabilities and Governance: The Rebirth of Production in the Theory of Economic Organization,"
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 201-18.
- Richard N. Langlois & Nicolai J. Foss, 1996. "Capabilities and Governance the Rebirth of Production in the Theory of Economic Organization," Working papers 1996-02, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
- Richard N. Langlois & Nicolai J. Foss, 1997. "Capabilities and Governance the Rebirth of Production in the Theory of Economic Organization," DRUID Working Papers 97-2, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Cooke, Philip & Gomez Uranga, Mikel & Etxebarria, Goio, 1997. "Regional innovation systems: Institutional and organisational dimensions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 475-491, December.
- Cefis, Elena & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2001.
"The persistence of innovative activities: A cross-countries and cross-sectors comparative analysis,"
Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1139-1158, August.
- Elena Cefis & Luigi Orsenigo, 1998. "The Persistence of Innovative Activities. A Cross-Countries and Cross-Sectors Comparative Analysis," Department of Economics Working Papers 9804, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
- Grossman, Jerome H & Reid, Proctor P & Morgan, Robert P, 2001. " Contributions of Academic Research to Industrial Performance in Five Industry Sectors," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 143-52, January.
- Nicolai J. Foss, 1999. "The Use of Knowledge in Firms," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 155(3), pages 458-, September.
- Kortum, Samuel & Lerner, Josh, 1999. "What is behind the recent surge in patenting?1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-22, January.
- Fransman, Martin, 2001. "Designing Dolly: interactions between economics, technology and science and the evolution of hybrid institutions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 263-273, February.
- Maskell, Peter & Malmberg, Anders, 1999. "Localised Learning and Industrial Competitiveness," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 167-85, March.
- Huggins, Robert, 2001. "Inter-firm network policies and firm performance: evaluating the impact of initiatives in the United Kingdom," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 443-458, March.
- Tijssen, Robert J. W., 2001. "Global and domestic utilization of industrial relevant science: patent citation analysis of science-technology interactions and knowledge flows," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 35-54, January.
- Bozeman, Barry, 2000. "Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 627-655, April.
- Furman, Jeffrey L. & Porter, Michael E. & Stern, Scott, 2002. "The determinants of national innovative capacity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 899-933, August.
- Straubhaar, Thomas, 2000. "International mobility of the highly skilled: Brain gain, brain drain or brain exchange," HWWA Discussion Papers 88, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
- Paul Krugman, 1998. "Space: The Final Frontier," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 161-174, Spring.
- Coombs, Rod & Hull, Richard, 1998. "'Knowledge management practices' and path-dependency in innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 237-253, July.
- Nee, Victor, 1998. "Norms and Networks in Economic and Organizational Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 85-89, May.
- McKelvey, Maureen, 1997. "Coevolution in Commercial Genetic Engineering," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(3), pages 503-32, September.
- Mark Tomlinson, 1999. "The learning economy and embodied knowledge flows in Great Britain," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 431-451.
- Shapira, Philip & Kingsley, Gordon & Youtie, Jan, 1997. "Manufacturing partnerships: Evaluation in the context of government reform," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 103-112, February.
- Witt, Ulrich, 1997. ""Lock-in" vs. "critical masses" -- Industrial change under network externalities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 753-773, October.
- Richard Blundell & Lorraine Dearden & Costas Meghir & Barbara Sianesi, 1999. "Human capital investment: the returns from education and training to the individual, the firm and the economy," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 20(1), pages 1-23, March.
- Alexander Eickelpasch & Martina Kauffeld & Ingo Pfeiffer, 2002. "Das InnoRegio-Programm: Umsetzung der Förderung und Entwicklung der Netzwerke," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 69(21), pages 329-338.
- Benzler, Guido & Wink, Rüdiger, 2002. "Balanced scorecards: strategisches Instrument der Innovationspolitik," Wirtschaftsdienst – Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik (1998 - 2007), ZBW – German National Library of Economics / Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 82(1), pages 53-60.
- Deroian, Frederic, 2002. "Formation of social networks and diffusion of innovations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 835-846, July.
- Witt, Ulrich, 2000. "Changing Cognitive Frames--Changing Organizational Forms: An Entrepreneurial Theory of Organizational Development," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 733-55, December.
- Manuel Trajtenberg & Adam B. Jaffe & Michael S. Fogarty, 2000. "Knowledge Spillovers and Patent Citations: Evidence from a Survey of Inventors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 215-218, May.
- Cantner, Uwe & Pyka, Andreas, 1998. "Technological evolution -- an analysis within the knowledge-based approach," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 85-107, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa02p496. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.