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Gains in the education of Peruvian women, 1940 to 1980

  • King, Elizabeth M.
  • Bellew, Rosemary

Since the mid 1950s, Peru's education policies have been designed to raise skill levels and make education available to more of the population. Those policies rested mainly on expanding the number of schools and as a result, school enrollment rates and attainment levels rose. However, an apparent parental preference to educate sons more than daughters meant that boys'schooling levels rose more quickly than girls'. Policies were not enough to bring girls'schooling even with boys', especially in rural areas. School quality, measured crudely by the supply of textbooks and the number of teachers, appears to have improved the schooling of women. Peru's education policies have reduced the direct costs associated with going to school. However, time allocation patterns reveal that the opportunity cost to the family of school attendance could be an effective barrier to further improvements in school enrollment and continuation rates. Even at a young age, girls - especially in rural families - participate in the labor market and contribute substantially to productive work at home.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 472.

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Date of creation: 31 Aug 1990
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:472
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  1. Reuben Gronau, 1976. "Leisure, Home Production and Work--The Theory of The Allocation of Time Revisited," NBER Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Bellew, Rosemary & Moock, Peter, 1990. "Vocational and technical education in Peru," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 365-375, December.
  3. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  4. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-79, July.
  5. Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1976. "Child Endowments and the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S143-62, August.
  6. King, E.M., 1990. "Does Education Pay In The Labor Market?: The Labor Force Participation, Occupation, And Earnings Of Peruvian Women," Papers 67, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  7. King, Elizabeth M. & Bellew, Rosemary T., 1989. "The effects of Peru's push to improve education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 172, The World Bank.
  8. Boissiere, M & Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1985. "Earnings, Schooling, Ability, and Cognitive Skills," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 1016-30, December.
  9. Yoram Ben-Porath, 1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life Cycle of Earnings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 352.
  10. Schultz, Theodore W, 1975. "The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 827-46, September.
  11. Robert J. Willis & Sherwin Rosen, 1978. "Education and Self-Selection," NBER Working Papers 0249, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Griliches, Zvi & Mason, William M, 1972. "Education, Income, and Ability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(3), pages S74-S103, Part II, .
  13. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1982. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 803-15, September.
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