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The"Glass of Milk"subsidy program and malnutrition in Peru


  • Stifel, David*Alderman, Harold


The authors evaluate the Vaso de Leche (VL) feeding program in Peru. They pose the question that if a community-based multistage targeting scheme such as that of the VL program is progressive, is it possible that the program can achieve its nutritional objectives? The authors address this by linking VL public expenditure data with household survey data to assess the targeting, and then to model the determinants of nutritional outcomes of children to see if VL program interventions have an impact on nutrition. They confirm that the VL program is well targeted to poor households and to those with low nutritional status. While the bulk of the coverage of the poor is attributed to targeting of poor districts, the fact that the poor receive larger in-kind transfers is attributed to intradistrict targeting. But the impact of these food subsidies beyond their value as income transfers is limited by the degree to which the commodity transfers are inframarginal. The authors find that transfers of milk and milk substitutes from the VL program are inframarginal for approximately half of the households that receive them. So, it is not entirely surprising that they fail to find econometric evidence of the nutritional objectives of the VL program being achieved. In models of child standardized heights, the authors find no impact of the VL program expenditures on the nutritional outcomes of young children-the group to whom the program is targeted.

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  • Stifel, David*Alderman, Harold, 2003. "The"Glass of Milk"subsidy program and malnutrition in Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3089, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3089

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Schady, Norbert R, 2002. "Picking the Poor: Indicators for Geographic Targeting in Peru," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(3), pages 417-433, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Robert T. Jensen & Nolan H. Miller, 2010. "Do Consumer Price Subsidies Really Improve Nutrition?," NBER Working Papers 16102, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Brown, Timothy Tyler, 2014. "How effective are public health departments at preventing mortality?," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 13(C), pages 34-45.
    3. Miller, Stephen M. & Neanidis, Kyriakos C., 2015. "Demographic transition and economic welfare: The role of in-cash and in-kind transfers," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 84-92.
    4. Salazar, Lina & Aramburu, Julián & González-Flores, Mario & Winters, Paul, 2016. "Sowing for food security: A case study of smallholder farmers in Bolivia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 32-52.
    5. Philippe De Vreyer & Javier Herrera & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, 2002. "Consumption growth and spatial poverty traps: an analysis of the effects of social services and community infrastructures on living standards in rural Peru," Working Papers DT/2002/17, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation), revised Oct 2003.
    6. Lina Salazar & Julián Aramburu & Mario González & Paul Winters, 2015. "Food Security and Productivity: Impacts of Technology Adoption in Small Subsistence Farmers in Bolivia," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 87853, Inter-American Development Bank.
    7. Daniel O. Gilligan & John Hoddinott, 2007. "Is There Persistence in the Impact of Emergency Food Aid? Evidence on Consumption, Food Security, and Assets in Rural Ethiopia," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 225-242.
    8. Das, Jishnu & Quy-Toan Do & Ozler, Berk, 2004. "Conditional cash transfers and the equity-efficiency debate," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3280, The World Bank.
    9. Thomas de Hoop & Ricardo Fort & Luuk van Kempen, 2009. "Do people invest in local public goods with long-term benefits? Experimental evidence from a shanty town in peru," Artefactual Field Experiments 00070, The Field Experiments Website.
    10. Norbert Schady, 2006. "Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, vol. 0(Spring 20), pages 185-225, January.
    11. Daniel Cotlear, 2006. "A New Social Contract for Peru: An Agenda for Improving Education, Health Care, and the Social Safety Net," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6990.
    12. Tusiime, Hamidu A. & Renard, Robrecht & Smets, Lodewijk, 2013. "Food aid and household food security in a conflict situation: Empirical evidence from Northern Uganda," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 14-22.
    13. Aturupane, Harsha & Deolalikar, Anil B. & Gunewardena, Dileni, 2008. "The Determinants of Child Weight and Height in Sri Lanka: A Quantile Regression Approach," WIDER Working Paper Series 053, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Gustavo Yamada & Juan Francisco Castro, 2007. "Poverty, inequality, and social policies in Peru: As poor as it gets," Working Papers 07-06, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico.
    15. World Bank, 2007. "Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7693, The World Bank.
    16. Kandpal, Eeshani, 2011. "Beyond Average Treatment Effects: Distribution of Child Nutrition Outcomes and Program Placement in India's ICDS," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1410-1421, August.
    17. Paxson, Christina & Schady, Norbert, 2004. "Child health and the 1988-92 economic crisis in Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3260, The World Bank.


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