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Who determines Mexican trade policy?

  • Grether, Jean-Marie
  • de Melo, Jaime
  • Olarreaga, Marcelo

Using a political economy approach, the authors analyze the pattern of protection in Mexico's manufacturing sector during the period of trade policy reforms (1985-89), when Mexico experienced significant trade liberalization and an important inflow of foreign direct investment. They take into account the potential effect of foreign direct investment on endogenous tariff formation. It turns out that the data support this analytic approach, in which the formulation of trade policy reflects political support, and in which the presence of foreign direct investment in the sector strongly affects the pattern of tariff protection before and after reform. In Mexican manufacturing, especially, sectors with heavy foreign direct investment received greater protection in import-competing sectors, although the move toward greater openness was associated with a reduction in the influence of industrial and foreign-investor lobbying.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2187.

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Date of creation: 30 Sep 1999
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2187
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  1. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994. "Protection for Sale," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 833-50, September.
  2. Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1990. "The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth," NBER Working Papers 3530, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Olarreaga, M., 1995. "Tariff Reductions in the Presence of Foreign Direct Investment," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 95.11, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  4. Casar, José I., 1993. "La competitividad de la industria manufacturera mexicana. 1980-1990," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(237), pages 113-183, enero-mar.
  5. Bhagwati, Jagdish N & Dinopoulos, Elias & Wong, Kar-yiu, 1992. "Quid Pro Quo Foreign Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 186-90, May.
  6. Rodrik, Dani, 1995. "Political economy of trade policy," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1457-1494 Elsevier.
  7. Elhanan Helpman, 1995. "Politics and Trade Policy," NBER Working Papers 5309, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Helleiner, G.K., 1989. "Transnational corporations and direct foreign investment," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 27, pages 1441-1480 Elsevier.
  9. Melo, J. de & Tarr, D., 1993. "Industrial Policy in the Presence of Wage Distorsions: The Case of the US Auto and Steel Industries," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 93.17, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  10. Baldwin, Robert E., 1984. "Trade policies in developed countries," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 571-619 Elsevier.
  11. Cadot, O & de Mela, J & Olarreaga, M, 1996. "Lobbying and the Structure of Protection," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 96.18, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  12. Levinsohn, James, 1993. "Testing the imports-as-market-discipline hypothesis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1-2), pages 1-22, August.
  13. K. Newey, Whitney, 1985. "Generalized method of moments specification testing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 229-256, September.
  14. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
  15. Bruce A. Blonigen & Robert C. Feenstra, . "Protectionist Threats And Foreign Direct Investment," Department of Economics 96-01, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  16. Braillard, S. Lael & Verdier, Thierry, 1994. "Lobbying and adjustment in declining industries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 586-595, April.
  17. J. Michael Finger & Ann Harrison, 1996. "The MFA Paradox: More Protection and More Trade?," NBER Chapters, in: The Political Economy of American Trade Policy, pages 197-260 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Anderson, Kym, 1980. "The Political Market for Government Assistance to Australian Manufacturing Industries," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 56(153), pages 132-44, June.
  19. Bilal, Sanoussi, 1998. "Why Regionalism May Increase the Demand for Trade Protection," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 13, pages 30-61.
  20. Ten Kate, Adriaan, 1992. "Trade liberalization and economic stabilization in Mexico: Lessons of experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 659-672, May.
  21. Hillman, Arye L & Ursprung, Heinrich W, 1993. "Multinational Firms, Political Competition, and International Trade Policy," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(2), pages 347-63, May.
  22. Lee, Sanghack, 1990. "International equity markets and trade policy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1-2), pages 173-184, August.
  23. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521477185 is not listed on IDEAS
  24. Marcelo Olarreaga, 1998. "Tariff Reductions under Foreign Factor Ownership," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(4), pages 830-836, November.
  25. Jean-Marie Grether, 1997. "Estimating the pro-competitive gains from trade liberalization: an application to Mexican manufacturing," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 393-417.
  26. Bernheim, B Douglas & Whinston, Michael D, 1986. "Menu Auctions, Resource Allocation, and Economic Influence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(1), pages 1-31, February.
  27. Dick, Andrew R., 1993. "Strategic trade policy and welfare : The empirical consequences of cross-ownership," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3-4), pages 227-249, November.
  28. Azrak, Paul & Wynne, Kevin, 1995. "Protectionism and Japanese direct investment in the United States," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 293-305, June.
  29. Gene Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1994. "Foreign Investment with Endogenous Protection," NBER Working Papers 4876, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Konishi, Hideo & Saggi, Kamal & Weber, Shlomo, 1999. "Endogenous trade policy under foreign direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 289-308, December.
  31. Hillman, Arye L, 1982. "Declining Industries and Political-Support Protectionist Motives," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(5), pages 1180-87, December.
  32. Blonigen, Bruce A & Figlio, David N, 1998. "Voting for Protection: Does Direct Foreign Investment Influence Legislator Behavior?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 1002-14, September.
  33. Barrell, Ray & Pain, Nigel, 1999. "Trade restraints and Japanese direct investment flows," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 29-45, January.
  34. Schweinberger, Albert G & Vosgerau, Hans J, 1997. "Foreign Factor Ownership and Optimal Tariffs," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, February.
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