Protection and trade in services : a survey
Until recently, trade in services was mostly ignored by iinternational economists, reflecting a perception that services were nontradable. This has never been true. Transportation and travel, for example, have always been important economic activities. In 1995, services trade climbed to a 20-percent share of global trade -no doubt an underestimate, as the most dynamic component of trade in services is telecommunications, which is not being properly captured in conventional balance of payment statistics. The authors survey the literature on trade in services, focusing on thepolicies used to restrict such trade, the gains from liberalization, and the institutional mechanisms adopted in pursuit of liberalization. They argue that technological progress (which makes services more tradable) and iinternational trade negotiations are likely to keep liberalization of trade in services a high-profile policy issue. They suggest that research focus on developing better estimates of the welfare costs of protectionism in the service sector. This will require quantifying barriers to the international exchange of services.
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- Hoekman, B.M., 1992.
"Conceptual and Political Economy Issues in Liberalizing International Transactions in Services,"
309, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
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- Binswanger, Hans P. & Khandker, Shahidur R & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1989. "How infrastructure and financial institutions affect agricultural output and investment in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 163, The World Bank.
- Mackie-Mason, J.K. & Varian, H.R., 1993. "Pricing the Internet," Memorandum 20/1993, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason & Hal R. Varian, 1994. "Pricing the Internet," Computational Economics 9401002, EconWPA.
- Hill, Alice*Abdala, Manuel Angel*DEC, 1993. "Regulation, institutions, and commitment : privatization and regulation in the Argentine telecommunications sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1216, The World Bank.
- Deardoff, A.V. & Brown, D.K. & Stern, R.M. & Fox, A.K., 1995. "Computational Analysis of Goods and Services Liberalization in the Uruguay Round," Working Papers 379, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Blomstrom, Magnus & Lipsey, Robert E., 1989. "US multinationals in Latin American service industries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(11), pages 1769-1776, November.
- Hallett Andrew Hughes & Braga C. A. Primo, 1994. "The New Regionalism and the Threat of Protectionism," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 388-421, December.
- Hallet, Andrew Hughes & Braga, Carlos A. Primo & DEC, 1994. "The new regionalism and the threat of protectionism," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1349, The World Bank.
- Hoekman, B. & Sauve, P., 1995. "Liberalizing Trade in Services," World Bank - Discussion Papers 243, World Bank.
- Joseph Francois & Hugh M. Arce & Kenneth A. Reinert & Joseph E. Flynn, 1996. "Commercial Policy and the Domestic Carrying Trade," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(1), pages 181-198, February. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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