Misallocation, Informality, and Human Capital
We develop a theory of total factor productivity to understand differences in pro- ductivity and human capital across countries. In our model, firms face capital market imperfections and costs of operating in the formal sector. Formal firms have a larger set of production opportunities and the ability to employ skilled workers, but informal firms can avoid the costs of formalization. These firm-level distortions give rise to endogenous formal and informal sectors and, more importantly, affect the demand for skilled workers. The model predicts that countries with a low degree of debt enforcement and high costs of formalization are characterized by low allocative efficiency and a larger informal sector, lower measured TFP, and lower stocks of skilled workers. We find that this mechanism plays an important role in generating the differences observed between the US and de- veloping countries in the human capital stock. Moreover, formal sector entry costs and financial frictions are complementary and their joint effect is the main driver of the dif- ferences between the US and developing countries in terms of human capital, informality, and TFP. The complementarity effect is generated by the introduction of skilled workers, which increases the labor substitution incentives, which in turn moves the firm closer to the financial constraint.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.virginia.edu/economics/home.html|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
- Marianne Bertrand & Francis Kramarz, 2001.
"Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation ? Evidence from the French Retail Industry,"
2001-12, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Marianne Bertrand & Francis Kramarz, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1369-1413.
- Marianne Bertrand & Francis Kramarz, 2001. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," NBER Working Papers 8211, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bertrand, Marianne & Kramarz, Francis, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," IZA Discussion Papers 415, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Bertrand, Marianne & Kramarz, Francis, 2001. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," CEPR Discussion Papers 3039, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bruhn, Miriam, 2008.
"License to sell : the effect of business registration reform on entrepreneurial activity in Mexico,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4538, The World Bank.
- Miriam Bruhn, 2011. "License to Sell: The Effect of Business Registration Reform on Entrepreneurial Activity in Mexico," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 382-386, February.
- Cristina Arellano & Yan Bai & Jing Zhang, 2009.
"Firm Dynamics and Financial Development,"
NBER Working Papers
15193, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Yongseok Shin & Joe Kaboski & Francisco J. Buera, 2008.
"Finance and Development: A Tale of Two Sectors,"
2008 Meeting Papers
955, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Psacharopoulos, George & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2002.
"Returns to investment in education : a further update,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2881, The World Bank.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
- Guillermo E. Perry & William F. Maloney & Omar S. Arias & Pablo Fajnzylber & Andrew D. Mason & Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi, 2007. "Informality : Exit and Exclusion," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6730, April.
- Laura Alfaro & Andrew Charlton & Fabio Kanczuk, 2008.
"Plant-Size Distribution and Cross-Country Income Differences,"
NBER Working Papers
14060, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Laura Alfaro & Andrew Charlton & Fabio Kanczuk, 2009. "Plant-Size Distribution and Cross-Country Income Differences," NBER Chapters, in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2008, pages 243-272 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hernan Moscoso Boedo & Toshihiko Mukoyama, 2012.
"Evaluating the effects of entry regulations and firing costs on international income differences,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 143-170, June.
- Hernan J. Moscoso Boedo & Toshihiko Mukoyama, 2011. "Evaluating the Effects of Entry Regulations and Firing Costs on International Income Differences," Virginia Economics Online Papers 379, University of Virginia, Department of Economics.
- Rauch, James E., 1991. "Modelling the informal sector formally," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 33-47, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vir:virpap:401. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Debby Stanford)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.