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Women’s Empowerment and HIV Prevention in Rural Malawi

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  • Gerritzen, Berit C.

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Abstract

Condom use and communication among sexual partners are important strategies for HIV prevention. Using a panel data set of more than 1,200 married women in rural Malawi from 1998-2008, this paper shows that adequate HIV prevention strategies, i.e. condom use within marriage and HIV-related spousal communication, are more widely used as women's bargaining power increases. I focus on different dimensions of women’s empowerment, namely personal and interpersonal empowerment. Among the proxies used for women's empowerment, own income, knowledge of other local languages and awareness of exit options from marriage are found to play a particularly important role in promoting adequate preventive behaviors. The main findings continue to hold after individual-specific fixed effects and time dummies are included in order to account for unobserved hetereogeneity and time trends.

Suggested Citation

  • Gerritzen, Berit C., 2012. "Women’s Empowerment and HIV Prevention in Rural Malawi," Economics Working Paper Series 1222, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:usg:econwp:2012:22
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Esther Duflo, 2012. "Women Empowerment and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1051-1079, December.
    2. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    3. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    4. Ashraf, Nava & Karlan, Dean & Yin, Wesley, 2010. "Female Empowerment: Impact of a Commitment Savings Product in the Philippines," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 333-344, March.
    5. Georges Reniers & Rania Tfaily, 2008. "Polygyny and HIV in Malawi," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(53), pages 1811-1830, October.
    6. Coupé, Tom, 2005. "Bias in Conditional and Unconditional Fixed Effects Logit Estimation: A Correction," Political Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(03), pages 292-295, June.
    7. Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2008. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9787111235767, March.
    8. Arellano, Manuel, 2003. "Panel Data Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199245291.
    9. Georges Reniers, 2008. "Marital strategies for regulating exposure to HIV," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 45(2), pages 417-438, May.
    10. FFF1Eliya Msiyaphazi NNN1Zulu & FFF2Gloria NNN2Chepngeno, 2003. "Spousal communication about the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS in rural Malawi," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 1(8), pages 247-278, September.
    11. FFF1Amy NNN1Kaler, 2003. "My Girlfriends Could Fill A Yanu-Yanu Bus," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 1(11), pages 349-372, September.
    12. Rebecca L. Thornton, 2008. "The Demand for, and Impact of, Learning HIV Status," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1829-1863, December.
    13. Marjorie Opuni & Amber Peterman & David Bishai, 2011. "Inequality in prime‐age adult deaths in a high AIDS mortality setting: does the measure of economic status matter?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(11), pages 1298-1311, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gerritzen, Berit C., 2014. "Intra-Household Bargaining Power and HIV Prevention: Empirical Evidence from Married Couples in Rural Malawi," Economics Working Paper Series 1408, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    HIV/AIDS; Sub-Saharan Africa; gender; development; spousal communication; condom use within marriage;

    JEL classification:

    • I14 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Inequality
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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