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Network Disruption and the Common Enemy Effect

  • B. Hoyer
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    "The enemy of my enemy is my friend." This common adage, which seems to be adhered to in social interactions (e.g. high school cliques or work relationships) as well as in political alliances within countries and between countries, describes the ability of groups or people to work together when they face an opponent, although otherwise they have little in common. In social psychology this phenomenon has been termed the "common enemy effect". Such group behavior can be studied using networks to depict the players within a group and the relationships between them. In this paper we study the effect of a common enemy on a model of network formation, where self-interested, myopic players can use links to build a network, knowing that they are facing a common enemy who can disrupt the links within the network and whose goal it is to minimize the overall value of the network. We find that introducing such a common enemy can lead to the formation of stable and efficient networks which would not be stable without the threat of disruption. However, we also find that fragmented networks as well as the empty networks are also stable. While the common enemy can thus have a positive effect on the incentives of players to form an efficient network, it can also lead to fragmentation and disintegration of the network.

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    File URL: http://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/262523/12-06.pdf
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    Paper provided by Utrecht School of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 12-06.

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    Length: 25 pages
    Date of creation: 25 Jan 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:1206
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    1. Heski Bar-Isaac & Mariagiovanna Baccara, 2006. "How to Organize Crime," Working Papers 06-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    2. Coralio Ballester & Antoni Calvo-Armengol & Yves Zenou, 2005. "Who's Who in Networks. Wanted: the Key Player," NajEcon Working Paper Reviews 666156000000000586, www.najecon.org.
    3. Kirchsteiger, Georg & Mantovani, Marco & Mauleon, Ana & Vannetelbosch, Vincent, 2011. "Myopic or Farsighted? An Experiment on Network Formation," CEPR Discussion Papers 8263, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Jean-Jacques, HERINGS & Ana, MAULEON & Vincent, VANNETELBOSCH, 2006. "Farsightedly stable networks," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2006046, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
    5. Satya P. Das & Prabal Roy Chowdhury, 2014. "Deterrence, Preemption, And Panic: A Common-Enemy Problem Of Terrorism," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(1), pages 219-238, 01.
    6. Jackson, Matthew O. & Wolinsky, Asher, 1996. "A Strategic Model of Social and Economic Networks," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 44-74, October.
    7. Dan Kovenock & Brian Roberson, 2010. "The Optimal Defense of Networks of Targets," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1251, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
    8. Marco Mantovani & Georg Kirchsteiger & Ana Mauleon & Vincent Vannetelbosch, 2013. "Limited Farsightedness in Network Formation," Working Papers ECARES 2013/76051, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    9. Mariagiovanna Baccara & Heski Bar-Isaac, 2008. "How to Organize Crime -super-1," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(4), pages 1039-1067.
    10. repec:cor:louvrp:2171 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Venkatesh Bala & Sanjeev Goyal, 2000. "A Noncooperative Model of Network Formation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(5), pages 1181-1230, September.
    12. K.J.M. De Jaegher & B. Hoyer, 2010. "Strategic Network Disruption and Defense," Working Papers 10-13, Utrecht School of Economics.
    13. Walter Enders & Paan Jindapon, 2010. "Network Externalities and the Structure of Terror Networks," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 54(2), pages 262-280, April.
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