IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/unm/unumer/2021019.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

How different are necessity and opportunity firms? Evidence from a quantile analysis of the Colombian microenterprise sector

Author

Listed:
  • Rodriguez Torres, Omar

    (UNU-MERIT)

Abstract

This paper explores the relationship between start-up motivation and business performance, by looking into the extent to which start-up motivation (necessity vs. opportunity) influences several business performance indicators. Using the Colombian Small and Microenterprise sector public dataset, we analyse the factors associated with microenterprise performance using a quantile regression approach to model the distribution of different measures of business performance. Among the findings, we present evidence of statistically significant differences among quantiles confirming the heterogeneity of start-up motivation and other firm characteristics of the firms operating in the sector. The results show that start-up motivation is a factor that explains the difference in the distribution of the business performance indicators under study. This findings contributes to the debate around the connection between entrepreneurship and growth in the context of developing economies. Even though firms motivated by necessity show a lower level of profit, in particular for the firms that perform relatively poorly, this is not necessarily associated with null or diminishing growth rates. Necessity is not necessarily a deterrent for growth. It needs to be understood as a means to support families that otherwise would have no income-generating opportunities.

Suggested Citation

  • Rodriguez Torres, Omar, 2021. "How different are necessity and opportunity firms? Evidence from a quantile analysis of the Colombian microenterprise sector," MERIT Working Papers 2021-019, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  • Handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2021019
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://unu-merit.nl/publications/wppdf/2021/wp2021-019.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Micheline Goedhuys & Leo Sleuwaegen, 2010. "High-growth entrepreneurial firms in Africa: a quantile regression approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 31-51, January.
    2. de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David J. & Woodruff, Christopher, 2009. "Measuring microenterprise profits: Must we ask how the sausage is made?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 19-31, January.
    3. Pia Arenius & Stefan Ehrstedt, 2008. "Variation in the level of activity across the stages of the entrepreneurial startup process-evidence from 35 countries," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 35(2 Year 20), pages 133-152, December.
    4. Yoonyoung Cho, 2024. "Entrepreneurship for the poor in developing countries," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 167-167, April.
    5. Rafael La Porta & Andrei Shleifer, 2014. "Informality and Development," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(3), pages 109-126, Summer.
    6. Gindling, T.H. & Newhouse, David, 2014. "Self-Employment in the Developing World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 313-331.
    7. David N Margolis, 2014. "By Choice and by Necessity: Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment in the Developing World," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 26(4), pages 419-436, September.
    8. Pablo Fajnzylber & William Maloney & Gabriel Montes Rojas, 2006. "Microenterprise Dynamics in Developing Countries: How Similar are They to Those in the Industrialized World? Evidence from Mexico," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 20(3), pages 389-419.
    9. de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David & Woodruff, Christopher, 2014. "Business training and female enterprise start-up, growth, and dynamics: Experimental evidence from Sri Lanka," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 199-210.
    10. Antoinette Schoar, 2010. "The Divide between Subsistence and Transformational Entrepreneurship," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 10, pages 57-81, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Abhijit Banerjee & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2010. "The Shape of Temptation: Implications for the Economic Lives of the Poor," Working Papers id:2484, eSocialSciences.
    12. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
    13. Pérez-Valbuena, Gerson Javier & Salazar-Mejía, Irene, 2008. "La pobreza en Cartagena : un análisis por barrios," Chapters, in: Meisel-Roca, Adolfo (ed.), La economía y el capital humano de Cartagena de Indias, chapter 1, pages 9-49, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    14. David B. Audretsch & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 17-34.
    15. Grimm, Michael & Paffhausen, Anna Luisa, 2015. "Do interventions targeted at micro-entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized firms create jobs? A systematic review of the evidence for low and middle income countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 67-85.
    16. John Bennett, 2010. "Informal firms in developing countries: entrepreneurial stepping stone or consolation prize?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 53-63, January.
    17. José Ernesto Amorós & Luciano Ciravegna & Vesna Mandakovic & Pekka Stenholm, 2019. "Necessity or Opportunity? The Effects of State Fragility and Economic Development on Entrepreneurial Efforts," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 43(4), pages 725-750, July.
    18. Jayachandran, Seema, 2020. "Microentrepreneurship in Developing Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 12943, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2007. "The Economic Lives of the Poor," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(1), pages 141-168, Winter.
    20. Günther, Isabel & Launov, Andrey, 2012. "Informal employment in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 88-98.
    21. Nichter, Simeon & Goldmark, Lara, 2009. "Small Firm Growth in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1453-1464, September.
    22. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    23. Lisa Daniels, 2001. "Testing alternative measures of microenterprise profits and net worth," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(5), pages 599-614.
    24. Santa María Mauricio & Sandra Rozo, 2009. "Análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de la informalidad empresarial en Colombia," Revista Desarrollo y Sociedad, Universidad de los Andes,Facultad de Economía, CEDE, September.
    25. Gabriela Calderon & Leonardo Iacovone & Laura Juarez, 2017. "Opportunity versus Necessity: Understanding the Heterogeneity of Female Micro-Entrepreneurs," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 30(Supplemen), pages 86-96.
    26. Jörn Block & Philipp Sandner, 2009. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs and Their Duration in Self-employment: Evidence from German Micro Data," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 117-137, June.
    27. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
    28. Mead, Donald C. & Liedholm, Carl, 1998. "The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 61-74, January.
    29. Suresh de Mel & David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2009. "Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 124(1), pages 423-423.
    30. Peter Zwan & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul & Jolanda Hessels, 2016. "Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 6(3), pages 273-295, December.
    31. repec:hal:pseose:hal-01060265 is not listed on IDEAS
    32. Bosma, Niels, 2013. "The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and Its Impact on Entrepreneurship Research," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 9(2), pages 143-248, February.
    33. N/A, 2010. "Books for Review," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 24(3), pages 612-614, September.
    34. Marco Vivarelli, 2004. "Are All the Potential Entrepreneurs So Good?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 41-49, August.
    35. Willebrands, Daan & Lammers, Judith & Hartog, Joop, 2012. "A successful businessman is not a gambler. Risk attitude and business performance among small enterprises in Nigeria," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 342-354.
    36. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank M. Fossen, 2020. "Defining Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," Research in Labor Economics, in: Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job, volume 48, pages 253-289, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
    37. Jeffery S. McMullen & D. Ray Bagby & Leslie E. Palich, 2008. "Economic Freedom and the Motivation to Engage in Entrepreneurial Action," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 32(5), pages 875-895, September.
    38. Toke Reichstein & Michael Dahl & Bernd Ebersberger & Morten Jensen, 2010. "The devil dwells in the tails," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 219-231, April.
    39. Mandelman, Federico S. & Montes-Rojas, Gabriel V., 2009. "Is Self-employment and Micro-entrepreneurship a Desired Outcome?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1914-1925, December.
    40. Guillermo E. Perry & William F. Maloney & Omar S. Arias & Pablo Fajnzylber & Andrew D. Mason & Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi, 2007. "Informality : Exit and Exclusion," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 6730, December.
    41. Simon Quinn & Christopher Woodruff, 2019. "Experiments and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 11(1), pages 225-248, August.
    42. Maria Minniti, 2008. "The Role of Government Policy on Entrepreneurial Activity: Productive, Unproductive, or Destructive?," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 32(5), pages 779-790, September.
    43. Vivarelli, Marco & Audretsch, David, 1998. "The Link between the Entry Decision and Post-Entry Performance: Evidence from Italy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press and the Associazione ICC, vol. 7(3), pages 485-500, September.
    44. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Reeg, Caroline, 2015. "Micro and small enterprises as drivers for job creation and decent work," IDOS Discussion Papers 10/2015, German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS).
    2. Marco Vivarelli, 2013. "Is entrepreneurship necessarily good? Microeconomic evidence from developed and developing countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press and the Associazione ICC, vol. 22(6), pages 1453-1495, December.
    3. Rodríguez Torres, Omar, 2022. "The productive role of social policy," MERIT Working Papers 2022-010, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    4. Martijn Boermans & Daan Willebrands, 2012. "Financial constraints, risk taking and firm performance: Recent evidence from microfinance clients in Tanzania," DNB Working Papers 358, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    5. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank M. Fossen, 2018. "Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 959, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    6. Vial, Virginie & Hanoteau, Julien, 2015. "Returns to Micro-Entrepreneurship in an Emerging Economy: A Quantile Study of Entrepreneurial Indonesian Households’ Welfare," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 142-157.
    7. Fabian Scholtes & Daniel Neff & Florian Lampe, 2018. "The Role And Sources Of Agency And Self-Employment Over The Life Course: Micro-Entrepreneurs In Kampala, Uganda," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 23(04), pages 1-21, December.
    8. Pierrick Baraton & Florian Léon, 2016. "Financial Constraint, Entrepreneurship and Sectoral Migrations," DEM Discussion Paper Series 16-09, Department of Economics at the University of Luxembourg.
    9. David McKenzie & Anna Luisa Paffhausen, 2019. "Small Firm Death in Developing Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(4), pages 645-657, October.
    10. Joshua Wassink, 2018. "Is Local Social Development Associated with Workforce Composition? A Municipal Analysis of Mexico, 1990–2015," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 37(6), pages 941-966, December.
    11. Stephen J. Anderson & Rajesh Chandy & Bilal Zia, 2018. "Pathways to Profits: The Impact of Marketing vs. Finance Skills on Business Performance," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(12), pages 5559-5583, December.
    12. Danquah Michael & Schotte Simone & Sen Kunal, 2021. "Informal work in sub-Saharan Africa: Dead end or stepping-stone?," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-44, January.
    13. Salinas, Aldo & Ortiz, Cristian & Changoluisa, Javier & Muffatto, Moreno, 2023. "Testing three views about the determinants of informal economy: New evidence at global level and by country groups using the CS-ARDL approach," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 438-455.
    14. Preeya S. Mohan, 2019. "Necessity Versus Opportunity Motivation: Nascent Firm Performance In Caribbean Small Island Developing States," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 24(04), pages 1-22, December.
    15. Rui Baptista & Murat Karaöz & João Correia Leitão, 2020. "Diversification by young, small firms: the role of pre-entry resources and entry mistakes," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(1), pages 103-122, June.
    16. Jonathan Fu & Annette Krauss, 2024. "Preparing fertile ground: how does the quality of business environments affect MSE growth?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 63(1), pages 51-103, June.
    17. Karaivanov, Alexander & Yindok, Tenzin, 2022. "Involuntary entrepreneurship – Evidence from Thai urban data," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 149(C).
    18. Pascaline Dupas & Jonathan Robinson, 2013. "Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 163-192, January.
    19. Dodlova, Marina & Göbel, Kristin & Grimm, Michael & Lay, Jann, 2015. "Constrained firms, not subsistence activities: Evidence on capital returns and accumulation in Peruvian microenterprises," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 94-110.
    20. José Ernesto Amorós & Luciano Ciravegna & Vesna Mandakovic & Pekka Stenholm, 2019. "Necessity or Opportunity? The Effects of State Fragility and Economic Development on Entrepreneurial Efforts," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 43(4), pages 725-750, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Firm performance; entrepreneurship; public policy; new firms; enterprise policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • J48 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Particular Labor Markets; Public Policy
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • L53 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Enterprise Policy
    • O25 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Industrial Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2021019. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Ad Notten (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/meritnl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.