IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/7636.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Opportunity versus necessity : understanding the heterogeneity of female micro-entrepreneurs

Author

Listed:
  • Montenegro Calderon,Gabriela
  • Iacovone,Leonardo
  • Juarez,Laura

Abstract

Entrepreneurs that voluntarily choose to start a business because they are able to identify a good business opportunity and act on it -- opportunity entrepreneurs -- might be different along various dimensions from those who are forced to become entrepreneurs because of lack of other alternatives -- necessity entrepreneurs. To provide evidence on these differences, this paper exploits a unique data set covering a wide array of characteristics, including cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills and managerial practices, for a large sample of female entrepreneurs in Mexico. Descriptive results show that on average opportunity entrepreneurs have better performance and higher skills than necessity entrepreneurs. A discriminant analysis reveals that discrimination is difficult to achieve based on these observables, which suggests the existence of unobservables driving both the decision to become an opportunity entrepreneur and performance. Thus, an instrumental variables estimation is conducted, using state economic growth in the year the business was set up as an instrument for opportunity, to confirm that opportunity entrepreneurs have higher performance and better management practices.

Suggested Citation

  • Montenegro Calderon,Gabriela & Iacovone,Leonardo & Juarez,Laura, 2016. "Opportunity versus necessity : understanding the heterogeneity of female micro-entrepreneurs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7636, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:7636
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/386041468000302608/pdf/WPS7636.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bruhn, Miriam, 2013. "A tale of two species: Revisiting the effect of registration reform on informal business owners in Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 275-283.
    2. Angrist, Joshua & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Why Do World War II Veterans Earn More Than Nonveterans?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(1), pages 74-97, January.
    3. Gabriela Calderon & Jesse M. Cunha & Giacomo De Giorgi, 2020. "Business Literacy and Development: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(2), pages 507-540.
    4. Fafchamps, Marcel & McKenzie, David & Quinn, Simon & Woodruff, Christopher, 2014. "Microenterprise growth and the flypaper effect: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 211-226.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2017. "Business Practices in Small Firms in Developing Countries," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(9), pages 2967-2981, September.
    2. Mayra Buvinic & Megan O’Donnell, 2017. "Gender Matters in Economic Empowerment Interventions: A Research Review - Working Paper 456," Working Papers 456, Center for Global Development.
    3. Zulaicha Parastuty & Dieter Bögenhold, 2019. "Paving the Way for Self-Employment: Does Society Matter?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-16, January.
    4. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank Fossen, 2018. "Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," CESifo Working Paper Series 6854, CESifo.
    5. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank M. Fossen, 2018. "Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 959, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    6. Nava Ashraf & Alexia Delfino & Edward L. Glaeser, 2019. "Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship," NBER Working Papers 26366, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Pérez-Centeno, Víctor, 2017. ""It takes three to tango": Brain, cognition and entrepreneurial enhancement," Working Papers 02/17, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    8. Kasper Brandt & Longinus Rutasitara & Onesmo Selejio & Neda Trifkovic, 2017. "Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children," WIDER Working Paper Series 198, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Mayra Buvinic & Megan O’Donnell, 2017. "Gender Matters in Economic Empowerment Interventions: A Research Review," Working Papers id:11926, eSocialSciences.
    10. Cyn-Young Park & Rogelio Mercado Jr., 2018. "Financial Inclusion: New Measurement and Cross-Country Impact Assessment," Working Papers wp29, South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre.
    11. Kasper Brandt & Longinus Rutasitara & Onesmo Selejio & Neda Trifkovi?, 2017. "Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2017-198, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    12. Robert W. Fairlie & Frank M. Fossen, 2019. "Defining Opportunity versus Necessity Entrepreneurship: Two Components of Business Creation," NBER Working Papers 26377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Giambra, Samuele & McKenzie, David, 2021. "Self-employment and migration," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    2. Giambra, Samuele & McKenzie, David, 2021. "Self-employment and migration," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    3. de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David & Woodruff, Christopher, 2014. "Business training and female enterprise start-up, growth, and dynamics: Experimental evidence from Sri Lanka," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 199-210.
    4. Giacomo De Giorgi & Matthew Ploenzke & Aminur Rahman, 2018. "Small Firms’ Formalisation: The Stick Treatment," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(6), pages 983-1001, June.
    5. Buvinic, Mayra & Furst-Nichols, Rebecca, 2014. "Promoting women's economic empowerment : what works ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7087, The World Bank.
    6. Nakasone, Eduardo & Torero, Maximo, 2014. "Soap Operas for for Female Micro Entrepreneur Training," MPRA Paper 61302, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Gine, Xavier & Mansuri, Ghazala, 2014. "Money or ideas ? a field experiment on constraints to entrepreneurship in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6959, The World Bank.
    8. Karlan, Dean & Knight, Ryan & Udry, Christopher, 2015. "Consulting and capital experiments with microenterprise tailors in Ghana," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 281-302.
    9. González-Uribe, Juanita & Reyes, Santiago, 2021. "Identifying and boosting “Gazelles”: Evidence from business accelerators," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 139(1), pages 260-287.
    10. Margaret Miller & Julia Reichelstein & Christian Salas & Bilal Zia, 2015. "Can You Help Someone Become Financially Capable? A Meta-Analysis of the Literature," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 30(2), pages 220-246.
    11. Stoeffler, Quentin & Mills, Bradford, 2014. "Households’ investments in durable and productive assets in Niger: quasi-experimental evidences from a cash transfer project," 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota 170212, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    12. Torun, Huzeyfe, 2019. "Ex-ante labor market effects of compulsory military service," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 90-110.
    13. José Luis Massón-Guerra & Pedro Ortín-Ángel, 2019. "Entrepreneurship capital spillovers at the local level," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 175-191, January.
    14. Clingingsmith, David & Shane, Scott, 2017. "Training Aspiring Entrepreneurs to Pitch Experienced Investors: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the United States," SocArXiv yzpvf, Center for Open Science.
    15. Katarina Keller & Panu Poutvaara & Andreas Wagener, 2009. "Does Military Draft Discourage Enrollment in Higher Education? Evidence from OECD Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 2838, CESifo.
    16. Frank Hubers & Dinand Webbink, 2015. "The long-term effects of military conscription on educational attainment and wages," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-16, December.
    17. Grimm, Michael & Hartwig, Renate & Lay, Jann, 2017. "Does forced solidarity hamper investment in small and micro enterprises?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 827-846.
    18. Marianne Page, 2006. "Father's Education and Children's Human Capital: Evidence from the World War II GI Bill," Working Papers 84, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    19. Ali, Abdul & Kelley, Donna J. & Levie, Jonathan, 2020. "Market-driven entrepreneurship and institutions," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 117-128.
    20. Farazi, Subika, 2014. "Informal firms and financial inclusion : status and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6778, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender and Economic Policy; Gender and Poverty; Gender and Economics; Economics and Gender;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:7636. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.