Free Riders, Holdouts, and Public Use: A Tale of Two Externalities
Free riders and holdouts are market failures that potentially impede the completion of otherwise beneficial transactions. The key difference is that the free rider problem is a demand side externality that requires taxation to compel payment for a public good, while the holdout problem is a supply side externality that requires eminent domain to force the sale of land for large scale projects. This paper highlights that distinction between these two problems and uses the resulting insights to clarify the meaning of the public use requirement of the Fifth Amendment takings clause.
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- Thomas J. Miceli & Kathleen Segerson, 2007.
"A Bargaining Model of Holdouts and Takings,"
American Law and Economics Review,
Oxford University Press, vol. 9(1), pages 160-174.
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- Thomas J. Miceli & Kathleen Segerson & C. F. Sirmans, 2007. "Tax Motivated Takings," Working papers 2007-43, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
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