Economic Rights, Human Development Effort and Institutions
This paper focuses on the link between economic rights and institutions. Simple analysis of data is used to demonstrate countries' human development effort in advancing economics rights of the citizens. A country's human development effort is evaluated on the basis of the well-being of the poorest members of the society. An analysis of data reveals that there is a wide variation in countries' pro-poor stance. While it is accepted that positive rights are pro-poor, this paper argues that so too are negative economic rights and in fact the two are complements rather than substitutes. Classifying countries into human development income deficit and human development effort deficit, it is demonstrated that a large number of countries could achieve higher welfare levels for the poor if they improved on bother positive and negative economic rights. The paper attempts to explain variations in the observed commitment to economic rights by focusing on pro-poor institutions. The basic thesis advanced in the paper is that pro-poor policies are more likely to be implemented and sustained in those institutions where power is sufficiently diffused such that even the poor have leverage over policy outcomes. The paper focuses on how institutions impact on power diffusion and therefore the adoption of pro-poor growth and policies. The failure of countries to adopt pro-poor growth and policies is attributed to institutional failures manifested in concentration of power. The policy recommendations emanating from the analysis focus on institutional reforms to enhance power diffusion. These policies include enlarging the political space through democratization, strengthening institutions and capacity to fight corruption and improve transparency, and bringing the government closer to the people through appropriate design and implementation of decentralization schemes. Some recent examples of improvements in economic rights following power diffusion are provided.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2005|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||Paper prepared for presentation at the Economics Rights Conference organized by the Human Rights Institute, University of Connecticut, October 27-29, 2005. An earlier version of this paper entitled "Institutions of Governance, Power Diffusion and Pro-Poor Growth and Policies," was presented at a Senior Policy seminar organized by African Economic Research Consortium, March 22-24, 2005, Cape Town, South Africa. I am grateful to members of the Economic Rights Reading Group for helpful comments and suggestions.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (860) 486-4889
Fax: (860) 486-4463
Web page: http://www.econ.uconn.edu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Acemoglu, Daron & Robinson, James A, 1998.
"Why did the West Extend the Franchise? Democracy, Inequality and Growth in Historical Perspective,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1797, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Daron Acemoglu & James A. Robinson, 2000. "Why Did The West Extend The Franchise? Democracy, Inequality, And Growth In Historical Perspective," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(4), pages 1167-1199, November.
- George J. Stigler, 1971. "The Theory of Economic Regulation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 2(1), pages 3-21, Spring.
- James A. Robinson & Daron Acemoglu, 2000. "Political Losers as a Barrier to Economic Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 126-130, May.
- Rodrik, Dani, 1998.
"Where Did all the Growth Go? External Shocks, Social Conflict and Growth Collapses,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1789, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Rodrik, Dani, 1999. " Where Did All the Growth Go? External Shocks, Social Conflict, and Growth Collapses," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 385-412, December.
- Dani Rodrik, 1998. "Where Did All The Growth Go? External Shocks, Social Conflict, and Growth Collapses," NBER Working Papers 6350, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stanley Fischer, 1993.
"The Role of Macroeconomic Factors in Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
4565, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Perotti, Roberto & Alesina, Alberto, 1996. "Income Distribution, Political Instability, and Investment," Scholarly Articles 4553018, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Janvier D. Nkurunziza & Robert H. Bates, 2003.
"Political Institutions and Economic Growth in Africa,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
2003-03, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Janvier Nkurunziza & Robert Bates, 2004. "Political Institutions And Economic Growth In Africa," Development and Comp Systems 0409028, EconWPA.
- Janvier Nkurunziza & Robert H. Bates, 2003. "Political Institutions and Economic Growth in Africa," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2003-03, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Peter Timmer, 2004.
"The Road to Pro-Poor Growth: The Indonesian Experience in Regional Perspective,"
38, Center for Global Development.
- C. Peter Timmer, 2004. "The road to pro-poor growth: the Indonesian experience in regional perspective," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(2), pages 177-207.
- Dani Rodrik, 1998.
"Democracies Pay Higher Wages,"
NBER Working Papers
6364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ravallion, Martin, 2001.
"Growth, inequality, and poverty : looking beyond averages,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2558, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin, 2001. "Growth, Inequality and Poverty: Looking Beyond Averages," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 1803-1815, November.
- Berggren, Niclas, 2003. "The Benefits of Economic Freedom: A Survey," Ratio Working Papers 4, The Ratio Institute.
- Alesina, Alberto & Perotti, Roberto, 1996.
"Income distribution, political instability, and investment,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1203-1228, June.
- Alberto Alesina & Roberto Perotti, 1993. "Income Distribution, Political Instability, and Investment," NBER Working Papers 4486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stephen L. Parente & Edward C. Prescott, 1997.
"Monopoly rights: a barrier to riches,"
236, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Stephan Klasen, 2004.
"In Search of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth?,"
- Stephan Klasen, 2003. "In Search of The Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth ?," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 096, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
- Francois Bourguignon, 2004. "The Poverty-growth-inequality triangle," Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi Working Papers 125, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India.
- Krusell, Per & Rios-Rull, Jose-Victor, 1996.
"Vested Interests in a Positive Theory of Stagnation and Growth,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(2), pages 301-29, April.
- Krusell, P. & Rios-Rull, J.V., 1993. "Vested Interests in a Positive Theory of Stagnation and Growth," Papers 547, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
- Acemoglu, Daron & Robinson, James A, 2002. "The Political Economy of the Kuznets Curve," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(2), pages 183-203, June.
- Keefer, Philip, 2004. "A review of the political economy of governance : from property rights to voice," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3315, The World Bank.
- Torsten Persson & Guido Tabellini, 2004. "Constitutions and Economic Policy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 75-98, Winter.
- de Haan, Jakob & Siermann, Clemens L J, 1996. " New Evidence on the Relationship between Democracy and Economic Growth," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 86(1-2), pages 175-98, January.
- Kimenyi, Mwangi S & Mbaku, John M, 1993. " Rent-Seeking and Institutional Stability in Developing Countries," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 77(2), pages 385-405, October.
- Wayne Brough & Mwangi Kimenyi, 1986. "On the inefficient extraction of rents by dictators," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 37-48, January.
- Kaufmann, Daniel & Kraay, Aart & Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo, 1999. "Governance matters," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2196, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2005-40. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Francis Ahking)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.