Immigrant Earnings Differences Across Admission Categories and Landing Cohorts in Canada
This study uses longitudinal IMDB micro data to document the annual earnings outcomes of Canadian immigrants in four major admission categories (skill-assessed independent economic principal applicants, accompanying economic immigrants, family class immigrants, and refugees) and three annual landing cohorts (those for the years 1982, 1988, and 1994) over the first ten years following their landing in Canada as permanent residents. The findings provide a ten-year earnings signature for the four broad immigrant admission categories in Canada. The studyâ€™s first major finding is that skill-assessed economic immigrants had consistently and substantially the highest annual earnings levels among the four admission categories for both male and female immigrants in all three landing cohorts. Family class immigrants or refugees generally had the lowest earnings levels. An important related finding is that refugees exhibited substantially the highest earnings growth rates for both male and female immigrants in all three landing cohorts, while independent economic or family class immigrants generally had the lowest earnings growth rates over their first post-landing decade in Canada. The studyâ€™s second major finding is that economic recessions appear to have had clearly discernible negative effects on immigrantsâ€™ earnings levels and growth rates; moreover, these adverse effects were much more pronounced for male immigrants than for female immigrants.
|Date of creation:||21 Aug 2011|
|Date of revision:||21 Aug 2011|
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- James Ted McDonald & Christopher Worswick, 1998.
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- Peter S. Li, 2003. "Initial Earnings and Catch-Up Capacity of Immigrants," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 29(3), pages 319-337, September.
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- David A. Green & Christopher Worswick, 2004.
"Immigrant earnings profiles in the presence of human capital investment: measuring cohort and macro effects,"
IFS Working Papers
W04/13, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Green, David A. & Worswick, Christopher, 2012. "Immigrant earnings profiles in the presence of human capital investment: Measuring cohort and macro effects," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 241-259.
- Charles M. Beach & Christopher Worswick, 2011. "Toward Improving Canada's Skilled Immigration Policy: An Evaluation Approach," C.D. Howe Institute Policy Studies, C.D. Howe Institute, number 20111, March.
- Charles Beach & Alan G. Green & Christopher Worswick, 2006. "Impacts of the Point System and Immigration Policy Levers on Skill Characteristics of Canadian Immigrants," Working Papers 1115, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Hou, Feng & Picot, Garnett & Coulombe, Simon, 2007. "Chronic Low Income and Low-income Dynamics Among Recent Immigrants," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2007294e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
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"Is There a Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women?,"
1990-6, Queen's at Kingston - Sch. of Indus. Relat. Papers in Industrial Relations.
- Charles M. Beach & Christopher Worswick, 1993. "Is There a Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 19(1), pages 36-53, March.
- Ostrovsky, Yuri, 2008. "Earnings Inequality and Earnings Instability of Immigrants in Canada," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2008309e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Charles M. Beach & Ross Finnie & David Gray, 2010. "Long-Run Inequality And Short-Run Instability Of Men'S And Women'S Earnings In Canada," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(3), pages 572-596, 09.
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