How Much Green for the Buck? Estimating Additional and Windfall Effects of French Agro-Environmental Schemes by DID-Matching
Agro-environmental schemes (AES), which pay farmers to adopt greener practices, are increasingly important components of environmental and agricultural policies both in the US and the EU. Here we study the French implementation of the EU AES program. We estimate additional and windfall effects of five AESs for a representative sample of individual farmers using Difference-In-Difference (DID) matching. We derive the statistical assumptions underlying DID-matching from a structural household model and we argue that the economics of the program make it likely that these assumptions hold in our data. We test the implications of the identifying assumptions, provide a lower bound using triple-difference matching, test for crossover effects and insert our estimates of both additionality and windfall effects into a cost-benefit framework. We find that the AESs promoting crop diversity have inserted one new crop into the rotation but on a small part of the cropped area. We also find that the AES subsidizing the planting of cover crops has increased cover crops by 10 hectares on the average recipient farm at the expense of almost 7 hectares of windfall effect. This AES does not appear to be cost effective. In contrast, we find that the AES subsidizing grass buffer strips could be socially efficient despite large windfall effects. We finally estimate that the AES subsidizing conversion to organic farming has low windfall effects and high additionality.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published in Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol.�65, n°1, janvier 2013, p.�12-27.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Phone: (+33) 5 61 12 86 23|
Web page: http://www.tse-fr.eu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Guido W. Imbens, 2004.
"Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
- Guido W. Imbens, 2003. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects under Exogeneity: A Review," NBER Technical Working Papers 0294, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto Abadie, 2005. "Semiparametric Difference-in-Differences Estimators," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 1-19.
- JunJie Wu, 2000. "Slippage Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(4), pages 979-992.
- Lori Lynch & Wayne Gray & Jacqueline Geoghegan, 2007. "Are Farmland Preservation Program Easement Restrictions Capitalized into Farmland Prices? What Can a Propensity Score Matching Analysis Tell Us? ," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 502-509.
- Dasgupta, Susmita & Hettige, Hemamala & Wheeler, David, 2000. "What Improves Environmental Compliance? Evidence from Mexican Industry," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 39-66, January.
- Sandhu, Harpinder S. & Wratten, Stephen D. & Cullen, Ross & Case, Brad, 2008. "The future of farming: The value of ecosystem services in conventional and organic arable land. An experimental approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(4), pages 835-848, February.
- Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003.
"Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?,"
University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers
20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
- A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
- Marc Fleurbaey & Francois Maniquet, 2002.
"Fair Income Tax,"
Economics Working Papers
0021, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Social Science.
- Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
- Anton, W.R.Q.Wilma Rose Q. & Deltas, George & Khanna, Madhu, 2004.
"Incentives for environmental self-regulation and implications for environmental performance,"
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 632-654, July.
- Anton, Wilma Rose Q. & Deltas, George & Khanna, Madhu, 2002. "Incentives for Environmental Self-Regulation and Implications for Environmental Performance," Working Papers 02-0120, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Business.
- Arimura, Toshi H. & Hibiki, Akira & Katayama, Hajime, 2008.
"Is a voluntary approach an effective environmental policy instrument?: A case for environmental management systems,"
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 281-295, May.
- Arimura, Toshi & Hibiki, Akira & Katayama, Hajime, 2007. "Is a Voluntary Approach an Effective Environmental Policy Instrument? A Case for Environmental Management Systems," Discussion Papers dp-07-31, Resources For the Future.
- Madior Fall & Thierry Magnac, 2004.
"How Valuable Is On-Farm Work to Farmers?,"
American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(1), pages 267-281.
- Madior Fall & Thierry Magnac, 2002. "How valuable is on-farm work to farmers?," Research Unit Working Papers 0204, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
- Madior Fall & Thierry Magnac, 2002. "How Valuable is On-Farm Work to Farmers ?," Working Papers 2002-35, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Wu, JunJie & Adams, Richard M. & Kling, Catherine L. & Tanaka, Katsuya, 2004.
"From Microlevel Decisions to Landscape Changes: An Assessment of Agricultural Conservation Policies,"
Staff General Research Papers
12519, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- JunJie Wu & Richard M. Adams & Catherine L. Kling & Katsuya Tanaka, 2004. "From Microlevel Decisions to Landscape Changes: An Assessment of Agricultural Conservation Policies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(1), pages 26-41.
- Rust, John, 1987. "Optimal Replacement of GMC Bus Engines: An Empirical Model of Harold Zurcher," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 999-1033, September.
- Michael J. Roberts & Shawn Bucholtz, 2005. "Slippage in the Conservation Reserve Program or Spurious Correlation? A Comment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(1), pages 244-250.
- Geraldine Ducos & Pierre Dupraz & Francois Bonnieux, 2009. "Agri-environment contract adoption under fixed and variable compliance costs," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(5), pages 669-687.
- Abbring, Jaap H. & Heckman, James J., 2007. "Econometric Evaluation of Social Programs, Part III: Distributional Treatment Effects, Dynamic Treatment Effects, Dynamic Discrete Choice, and General Equilibrium Policy Evaluation," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 72 Elsevier.
- Lori Lynch & Xiangping Liu, 2007. "Impact of Designated Preservation Areas on Rate of Preservation and Rate of Conversion: Preliminary Evidence," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1205-1210.
- Smith, Vincent H. & Goodwin, Barry K., 2003. "An Ex Post Evaluation of the Conservation Reserve, Federal Crop Insurance, and Other Government Programs: Program Participation and Soil Erosion," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(02), August.
- Ing-Marie Gren, 2001. "International Versus National Actions Against Nitrogen Pollution of the Baltic Sea," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 20(1), pages 41-59, September.
- Michael J. Roberts & Ruben N. Lubowski, 2007. "Enduring Impacts of Land Retirement Policies: Evidence from the Conservation Reserve Program," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(4), pages 516-538.
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002.
"How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?,"
NBER Working Papers
8841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275, February.
- Andrea Pufahl & Christoph R. Weiss, 2009. "Evaluating the effects of farm programmes: results from propensity score matching," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 79-101, March.
- Lopez, Ramon E., 1984. "Estimating labor supply and production decisions of self-employed farm producers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 61-82.
- Jussi Lankoski & Markku Ollikainen, 2003. "Agri-environmental externalities: a framework for designing targeted policies," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 51-75, March.
- Khanna, Madhu & Damon, Lisa A., 1999. "EPA's Voluntary 33/50 Program: Impact on Toxic Releases and Economic Performance of Firms," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 1-25, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tse:wpaper:26568. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.