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Panel Data Analysis of Japanese Residential Water Demand Using a Discrete/Continuous Choice Approach

  • Koji Miyawaki

    (National Institute for Environmental Studies)

  • Yasuhiro Omori

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

  • Akira Hibiki

    (National Institute for Environmental Studies)

Block rate pricing is often applied to income taxation, telecommunication services, and brand marketing in addition to its best-known application in public utility services. Under block rate pricing, consumers face piecewise-linear budget constraints. A discrete/ continuous choice approach is usually used to account for piecewise-linear budget constraints for demand and price endogeneity. A recent study proposed a methodology to incorporate a separability condition that previous studies ignore, by implementing a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach. To extend this approach to panel data, our study proposes a Bayesian hierarchical model incorporating the random and fixed individual effects. In both models, the price and income elasticities are estimated to be negative and positive, respectively. Further, the number of members and the number of rooms per household have positive relationship to the residential water demand when we apply the model with random individual effects, while they do not in the model with fixed individual effects.

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Paper provided by CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo in its series CIRJE F-Series with number CIRJE-F-764.

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Length: 32pages
Date of creation: Oct 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2010cf764
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  1. David J. Spiegelhalter & Nicola G. Best & Bradley P. Carlin & Angelika van der Linde, 2002. "Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 64(4), pages 583-639.
  2. repec:oup:restud:v:47:y:1980:i:1:p:225-38 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Koji, Miyawaki & Yasuhiro Omori & Akira Hibiki, 2010. "Bayesian Estimation of Demand Functions under Block-Rate Pricing," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-712, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  4. Hausman, Jerry A, 1985. "The Econometrics of Nonlinear Budget Sets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1255-82, November.
  5. Ellen M. Pint, 1999. "Household Responses to Increased Water Rates during the California Drought," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 75(2), pages 246-266.
  6. Jasper M. Dalhuisen & Raymond J. G. M. Florax & JHenri L. F. de Groot & Peter Nijkamp, 2003. "Price and Income Elasticities of Residential Water Demand: A Meta-Analysis," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 79(2), pages 292-308.
  7. Motta, Ronaldo Ser A Da & Huber, Richard M. & Ruitenbeek, H. Jack, 1999. "Market based instruments for environmental policymaking in Latin America and the Caribbean: lessons from eleven countries," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(02), pages 177-201, May.
  8. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  9. Julie A. Hewitt & W. Michael Hanemann, 1995. "A Discrete/Continuous Choice Approach to Residential Water Demand under Block Rate Pricing," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 71(2), pages 173-192.
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