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A structural approach for analyzing fiscal equalization

Many countries apply cost-equalization and/or fiscal capacity equalization formulas to enable sub-national governments to provide comparable service standards at comparable tax rates. This paper demonstrates how measures of expenditure needs and fiscal capacity can be derived from a structural model of local government spending and taxing behavior. The structural parameters are shown to provide the information required to implement equalization according to the principle of horizontal equity.

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Paper provided by Statistics Norway, Research Department in its series Discussion Papers with number 715.

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Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:715
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  1. Christos Kotsogiannis, 2007. "Federal Tax Competition and the Efficiency Consequences for Local Taxation of Revenue Equalization," Discussion Papers 0701, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
  2. Richard Jackman & John Papadachi, 1981. "Local authority education expenditure in England and Wales: Why standards differ and the impact of government grants," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 425-439, January.
  3. William D. Duncombe & John Yinger, 2004. "How Much More Does a Disadvantaged Student Cost?," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 60, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  4. Alexander Cappelen & Bertil Tungodden, 2007. "Local autonomy and interregional equality," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 28(3), pages 443-460, April.
  5. Roy Bahl & Sally Wallace, 2004. "Intergovernmental Transfers: The Vertical Sharing Dimension," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0419, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  6. Yinger, John, 1986. "On fiscal disparities across cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 316-337, May.
  7. James J. Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 2005. "Structural Equations, Treatment Effects and Econometric Policy Evaluation," NBER Working Papers 11259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. David Albouy, 2010. "Evaluating the Efficiency and Equity of Federal Fiscal Equalization," NBER Working Papers 16144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Aaberge, Rolf & Bhuller, Manudeep & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne, 2010. "The Distributional Impact of Public Services When Needs Differ," IZA Discussion Papers 4826, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Joshua D. Angrist & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2010. "The Credibility Revolution in Empirical Economics: How Better Research Design is Taking the Con out of Econometrics," Working Paper Series of the German Council for Social and Economic Data 142, German Council for Social and Economic Data (RatSWD).
  11. Andrew Reschovsky & Jennifer Imazeki, 2003. "Let No Child Be Left Behind: Determining the Cost of Improving Student Performance," Public Finance Review, SAGE Publishing, vol. 31(3), pages 263-290, May.
  12. Audun Langørgen, 2011. "Targeting public services through the unequal treatment of unequals," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 18(2), pages 193-213, April.
  13. Chetty, Nadarajan, 2009. "Sufficient Statistics for Welfare Analysis: A Bridge Between Structural and Reduced-Form Methods," Scholarly Articles 9748528, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  14. Maarten A. Allers & J. Paul Elhorst, 2011. "A Simultaneous Equations Model Of Fiscal Policy Interactions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 271-291, 05.
  15. Lluch, Constantino, 1973. "The extended linear expenditure system," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 21-32, April.
  16. Anwar Shah, 1996. "A Fiscal Need Approach to Equalization," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 22(2), pages 99-115, June.
  17. Mieszkowski, Peter & Musgrave, Richard A., 1999. "Federalism, Grants, and Fiscal Equalization," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 2), pages 239-60, June.
  18. Aaberge, Rolf & Langorgen, Audun, 2003. "Fiscal and Spending Behavior of Local Governments: Identification of Price Effects When Prices Are Not Observed," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 117(1-2), pages 125-61, October.
  19. Kenneth I. Wolpin & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2000. "Natural "Natural Experiments" in Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(4), pages 827-874, December.
  20. Downes, Thomas A. & Pogue, Thomas F., 1994. "Adjusting School Aid Formulas for the Higher Cost of Educating Disadvantaged Students," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 47(1), pages 89-110, March.
  21. Sam Bucovetsky & Michael Smart, 2006. "The Efficiency Consequences of Local Revenue Equalization: Tax Competition and Tax Distortions," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 8(1), pages 119-144, 01.
  22. Robin W. Boadway & Frank R. Flatters, 1982. "Efficiency and Equalization Payments in a Federal System of Government: A Synthesis and Extension of Recent Results," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 15(4), pages 613-33, November.
  23. Le Grand, Julian, 1975. "Fiscal Equity and Central Government Grants to Local Authorities," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 85(339), pages 531-47, September.
  24. repec:pri:rpdevs:deaton_instruments_randomization_learning_all_04april_2010 is not listed on IDEAS
  25. Angus Deaton, 2010. "Instruments, Randomization, and Learning about Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(2), pages 424-55, June.
  26. Allers, Maarten A., 2012. "Yardstick competition, fiscal disparities, and equalization," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 4-6.
  27. Bradbury, Katharine & Zhao, Bo, 2009. "Measuring Non–School Fiscal Disparities among Municipalities," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 62(1), pages 25-56, March.
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