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Le RSA : redistribution vers les travailleurs pauvres et offre de travail

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  • Guillaume Allegre

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

Abstract

Le RSA a remplacé le RMI, l’API et leurs mesures d’intéressement au 1er Juin 2009. La réforme vise un double objectif, redistributif et incitatif : il s’agit d’une part, d’augmenter le niveau de vie des ménages de travailleurs pauvres et d’autre part, de supprimer les trappes à inactivité qu’engendreraient des gains à la reprise d’emploi trop faibles par rapport aux revenus d’inactivité (RMI ou API). En créant un écart entre revenus d’inactivité et revenus d’activité, le RSA entend également revaloriser le travail et rétribuer l’effort. Le premier effet du RSA est bien d’élever le niveau de vie des ménages de travailleurs pauvres. Du fait de son caractère familialisé, le RSA cible relativement bien les ménages de travailleurs les plus pauvres. Toutefois, le ciblage du RSA et son caractère familialisé créent des effets ambigus en termes de gains financiers à la reprise d’emploi et à l’augmentation des revenus d’activité. Ces effets sont ici estimés par microsimulation. Nous trouvons que la prestation bénéficie majoritairement aux ménages les plus pauvres : environ 65 % des dépenses de RSA activité sont perçues par les ménages des deux premiers déciles de niveau de vie. Si tous les ménages potentiellement bénéficiaires recouraient à la prestation, près de 400 000 individus sortiraient de la pauvreté grâce à cette mesure. À l’aide d’un pur modèle d’offre de travail, nous estimons également l’impact du RSA sur l’offre de travail des femmes seules et mariées sur la base des données de l’Enquête revenus fiscaux 2003. Sur l’ensemble de l’échantillon, en net, 12 000 individus renonceraient à travailler ; l’offre de travail à temps plein serait réduite de 21 000 et l’offre de travail à mi-temps augmenterait d’environ 9 000, soit des effets sur l’offre de travail relativement faibles. En conclusion, nous proposons des voies de réforme du RSA.

Suggested Citation

  • Guillaume Allegre, 2011. "Le RSA : redistribution vers les travailleurs pauvres et offre de travail," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/eu4vqp9ompq, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/eu4vqp9ompqllr09hi4cg4tpj
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bargain, Olivier & Orsini, Kristian, 2006. "In-work policies in Europe: Killing two birds with one stone?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 667-697, December.
    2. Guillaume Allegre & Hélène Périvier, 2005. "Pauvreté et activité : vers quelle équation sociale ?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/3467, Sciences Po.
    3. Jean-Luc Outin, 2008. "RMI et indemnisation du chômage," Post-Print halshs-00181314, HAL.
    4. Nicolas Gravel & Cyrille Hagneré & Nathalie Picard & Alain Trannoy, 2001. "Une évaluation de l'impact incitatif et redistributif d'une réforme des minima sociaux," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 16(1), pages 125-167.
    5. Guillaume Allègre, 2010. "L'expérimentation du revenu de solidarité active entre objectifs scientifiques et politiques," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(2), pages 59-90.
    6. Jean-Luc Outin, 2008. "RMI et indemnisation du chômage," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00181314, HAL.
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    Cited by:

    1. Guillaume Allegre, 2014. "How can a basic income be defended?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/25qafebie49, Sciences Po.
    2. Guillaume Allegre, 2013. "Comment peut-on défendre un revenu de base ?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/6ggbvnr6mun, Sciences Po.
    3. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/6ggbvnr6munghes9oehj92o15 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Guillaume Allegre & Nicolas Duvoux & Bruno Palier & Bernard Gomel & Dominique Méda & Etienne Wasmer, 2014. "Quelle réforme pour le revenu de solidarité active et la Prime pour l'emploi ?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/1p20hvg1go8, Sciences Po.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    RSA; Microsimulation; Redistribution; Incitations; Travailleurs pauvres; Offre de travail;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household

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