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Une évaluation de l'impact incitatif et redistributif d'une réforme des minima sociaux

Author

Listed:
  • Nicolas Gravel
  • Cyrille Hagneré
  • Nathalie Picard
  • Alain Trannoy

Abstract

[fre] Dans cet article, on étudie l'impact que pourrait avoir la mise en œuvre de réformes de type "allocation compensatrice de revenu" (ACR) sur le retour à l'emploi des RMistes et autres titulaires de minima sociaux. Nous faisons état de prévisions des comportements d'offre de travail des individus qui pourraient résulter de la mise en œuvre d'une série de variantes d'ACR. Ces prévisions sont effectuées à partir d'une modélisation structurelle et d'une estimation économétrique préalable des comportements des ménages effectuée et présentée en détail dans Gravel- Hagneré-Picard [2000] . La fraction des individus (ménages monoparentaux) qui retrouveraient un travail à temps partiel par suite de ces réformes ne dépasse jamais 15 % du total de la population cible. Par contre des individus qui, entre autres, travaillaient à plein temps opteraient pour le temps partiel. Le bilan agrégé en termes d'heures de travail serait négatif. L'effet redistributif de ce type de réforme est cependant indéniable. Parmi toutes les réformes envisagées, celle qui consiste à laisser à l'individu 60 centimes sur chaque franc gagné semble préférable, lorsqu'on combine des critères d'efficacité et d'équité. [eng] This paper examines the impact that reforms of the French welfare system could have on the employment and labour force participation of welfare recipients. More specifically we present predictions of the individuals'labour supply behaviour that could result from the introduction of a few reform scenarios based on a reduction of the marginal implicit income tax rate faced by welfare recipients under the current system. These predictions are derived from a structural modelization and an econometric estimation of the labour supply of single-head households discussed in detail in Gravel-Hagneré-Picard (2000). The fraction of actually unemployed single head households who would become employed after the reforms never exceed 15 % of the total target population. Moreover, some households head who were working under the current system would choose to reduce their hours worked. The aggregate effect of all the reforms on the labour supply turns out to be negative. On the other hand, this kind of reform appears to have an undeniable redis- tributive effect. Among the reforms considered, it is the one associated with a 40 percent implicit marginal tax rate on the labour income which seems to represent the best compromise between equity and efficiency considerations.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicolas Gravel & Cyrille Hagneré & Nathalie Picard & Alain Trannoy, 2001. "Une évaluation de l'impact incitatif et redistributif d'une réforme des minima sociaux," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 16(1), pages 125-167.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2001_num_16_1_1450
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2001.1450
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Guillaume Allègre, 2011. "Le RSA : redistribution vers les travailleurs pauvres et offre de travail," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(3), pages 33-61.
    2. Cyrille Hagneré & Nathalie Picard & Alain Trannoy & Karine Van der Straeten, 2003. "L'importance des incitations financières dans l'obtention d'un emploi est-elle surestimée ?," Economie & Prévision, La Documentation Française, vol. 0(4), pages 49-78.
    3. Dominique Ansieau & Pascale Breuil-Genier & Jean-Michel Hourriez, 2001. "Le Panel européen : une source statistique longitudinale sur les revenus et les conditions de vie des ménages," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 349(1), pages 3-15.
    4. Philippe Mongin, 2008. "Sur le revenu de solidarité active," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 118(4), pages 433-474.

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