IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/spa/wpaper/2024wpecon14.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

COVID-19 and gender-biased violence: current knowledge, gaps, and implications for public policy

Author

Listed:
  • Fabiana Rocha
  • Maria Dolores Montoya Diaz
  • Paula Carvalho Pereda
  • Isadora Bousquat Arabe
  • Filipe Cavalcanti
  • Samuel Lordemus
  • Noemi Kreif
  • Rodrigo Moreno-Serra

Abstract

On a global scale, 1 in 3 women experience physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime, and women of disadvantaged backgrounds are at an even higher risk. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, data have shown that violence against women (VAW) has intensified. In this paper, we review an incipient but rapidly growing literature that evaluates the effects of stay-at-home measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 on VAW. We focus on low and middle-income countries and classify existing studies into three categories according to the quality of the data used and the reliability of the identification strategies: not causal, less causal, and causal. Overall, the existing literature offers mixed evidence about the VAW effects of stay-at-home measures, although increases in VAW have been more frequently observed where stay-at-home measures were stricter. Important reasons for the mixed evidence found in the literature seem to be the different types of violence analyzed (physical, sexual, psychological, or economic) and the corresponding difficulties in reporting. The main methodological challenges for this literature are data availability and the reliability of the methods employed to separate the effects of social isolation on VAW from those VAW effects associated with the income and emotional shocks from the COVID-19 pandemic. Innovative methods and data can help to improve our understanding and design better policy responses to this major social and public health challenge.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabiana Rocha & Maria Dolores Montoya Diaz & Paula Carvalho Pereda & Isadora Bousquat Arabe & Filipe Cavalcanti & Samuel Lordemus & Noemi Kreif & Rodrigo Moreno-Serra, 2024. "COVID-19 and gender-biased violence: current knowledge, gaps, and implications for public policy," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2024_14, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
  • Handle: RePEc:spa:wpaper:2024wpecon14
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.repec.eae.fea.usp.br/documentos/Rocha_Diaz_Pereda_Arabe_Lordemus_Kreif_Serra_14WP.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Leslie, Emily & Wilson, Riley, 2020. "Sheltering in place and domestic violence: Evidence from calls for service during COVID-19," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 189(C).
    2. Dan Anderberg & Helmut Rainer & Jonathan Wadsworth & Tanya Wilson, 2016. "Unemployment and Domestic Violence: Theory and Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(597), pages 1947-1979, November.
    3. Pinotti, Paolo & Bhalotra, Sonia & Britto, Diogo & Sampaio, Breno, 2021. "Job Displacement, Unemployment Benefits and Domestic Violence," CEPR Discussion Papers 16350, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Anila Channa & Jean-Paul Faguet, 2016. "Decentralization of Health and Education in Developing Countries: A Quality-Adjusted Review of the Empirical Literature," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 31(2), pages 199-241.
    5. Victoria Baranov & Lisa Cameron & Diana Contreras Suarez & Claire Thibout, 2021. "Theoretical Underpinnings and Meta-analysis of the Effects of Cash Transfers on Intimate Partner Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 57(1), pages 1-25, January.
    6. Daniel Halim & England Rhys Can & Elizaveta Perova, 2020. "What Factors Exacerbate and Mitigate the Risk of Gender-Based Violence During COVID-19?," World Bank Publications - Reports 35007, The World Bank Group.
    7. Amalia R. Miller & Carmit Segal & Melissa K. Spencer, 2024. "Effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic on domestic violence in Los Angeles," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 91(361), pages 163-187, January.
    8. Goodman-Bacon, Andrew & Marcus, Jan, 2020. "Using Difference-in-Differences to Identify Causal Effects of COVID-19 Policies," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 14(2), pages 153-158.
    9. David Card & Gordon B. Dahl, 2011. "Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 126(1), pages 103-143.
    10. Anna Aizer, 2010. "The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(4), pages 1847-1859, September.
    11. Mohler, George & Bertozzi, Andrea L. & Carter, Jeremy & Short, Martin B. & Sledge, Daniel & Tita, George E. & Uchida, Craig D. & Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, 2020. "Impact of social distancing during COVID-19 pandemic on crime in Los Angeles and Indianapolis," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    12. M. Amelia Gibbons & Tommy E. Murphy & Martín A. Rossi, 2021. "Confinement and intimate partner violence," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 74(3), pages 349-361, August.
    13. Justin McCrary & Sarath Sanga, 2021. "The Impact of the Coronavirus Lockdown on Domestic Violence," American Law and Economics Review, American Law and Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 137-163.
    14. Dan Anderberg & Helmut Rainer & Jonathan Wadsworth & Tanya Wilson, 2016. "Unemployment and Domestic Violence: Theory and Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(597), pages 1947-1979, November.
    15. Susan Athey & Guido W. Imbens, 2017. "The State of Applied Econometrics: Causality and Policy Evaluation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 3-32, Spring.
    16. Arenas-Arroyo, Esther & Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel & Nollenberger, Natalia, 2021. "Intimate partner violence under forced cohabitation and economic stress: Evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 194(C).
    17. repec:diw:diwwpp:dp1870 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Amalia R Miller & Carmit Segal, 2019. "Do Female Officers Improve Law Enforcement Quality? Effects on Crime Reporting and Domestic Violence," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 86(5), pages 2220-2247.
    19. Angelucci Manuela, 2008. "Love on the Rocks: Domestic Violence and Alcohol Abuse in Rural Mexico," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-43, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rocha, Fabiana & Diaz, Maria Dolores Montoya & Pereda, Paula Carvalho & Árabe, Isadora Bousquat & Cavalcanti, Filipe & Lordemus, Samuel & Kreif, Noemi & Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo, 2024. "COVID-19 and violence against women: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for public policy," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 174(C).
    2. Santiago M. Perez-Vincent & Enrique Carreras, 2022. "Domestic violence reporting during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from Latin America," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 799-830, September.
    3. Denti, Daria & Iammarino, Simona, 2022. "Coming Out of the Woods. Do local support services influence the propensity to report sexual violence?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 334-352.
    4. Alexander Henke & Linchi Hsu, 2022. "COVID-19 and Domestic Violence: Economics or Isolation?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 296-309, June.
    5. Veronica Grembi & Anna C. Rosso & Emilia Barili, 2024. "Domestic violence perception and gender stereotypes," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 37(1), pages 1-32, March.
    6. Roman, Soraya & Aguiar-Palma, Marina & Machado, Cecilia, 2023. "A tale of two cities: Heterogeneous effects of COVID-19 quarantine on domestic violence in Brazil," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 331(C).
    7. Arenas-Arroyo, Esther & Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel & Nollenberger, Natalia, 2021. "Intimate partner violence under forced cohabitation and economic stress: Evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 194(C).
    8. Berniell, Inés & Facchini, Gabriel, 2021. "COVID-19 lockdown and domestic violence: Evidence from internet-search behavior in 11 countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    9. Perrotta Berlin, Maria & Gerrell, Manne, 2022. "Economic Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence: The Case of Sweden during Covid-19," SITE Working Paper Series 60, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics.
    10. Marco Colagrossi & Claudio Deiana & Andrea Geraci & Ludovica Giua, 2022. "Hang up on stereotypes: Domestic violence and an anti‐abuse helpline campaign," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 40(4), pages 585-611, October.
    11. Díaz, Juan-José & Saldarriaga, Victor, 2023. "A drop of love? Rainfall shocks and spousal abuse: Evidence from rural Peru," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    12. Ana Tur-Prats, 2017. "Unemployment and intimate-partner violence: A gender-identity approach," Economics Working Papers 1564, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    13. Black, Dan A. & Grogger, Jeffrey & Kirchmaier, Tom & Sanders, Koen, 2023. "Criminal charges, risk assessment and violent recidivism in cases of domestic abuse," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 121374, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    14. Louis-Philippe Béladn & Abel Brodeur & Joanne Haddad & Derek Mikola, 2021. "Determinants of Family Stress and Domestic Violence: Lessons from the COVID-19 Outbreak," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 47(3), pages 439-459, September.
    15. Sofia Amaral, 2015. "Do Improved Property Rights Decrease Violence Against Women in India?," Discussion Papers 15-10, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
    16. Sofia Amaral & Sonia Bhalotra & Nishith Prakash, 2019. "Gender, Crime and Punishment: Evidence from Women Police Stations in India," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-309, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    17. Emilia Barili & Veronica Grembi & Anna Rosso, 2021. "Domestic Violence and Gender Stereotypes: Perceptions, Justifications, and Reactions," Development Working Papers 474, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
    18. Gulesci, Selim & Puente–Beccar, Manuela & Ubfal, Diego, 2021. "Can youth empowerment programs reduce violence against girls during the COVID-19 pandemic?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 153(C).
    19. Mohammad Amin & Asif M. Islam & Augusto Lopez‐Claros, 2021. "Absent laws and missing women: Can domestic violence legislation reduce female mortality?," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(4), pages 2113-2132, November.
    20. Ana Tur-Prats, 2019. "Family Types and Intimate Partner Violence: A Historical Perspective," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(5), pages 878-891, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender-based violence; COVID-19 pandemic; Low- and middle-income countries;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • H12 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Crisis Management

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spa:wpaper:2024wpecon14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Pedro Garcia Duarte (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deuspbr.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.