Smallholder Supply Response and Gender in Ethiopia: A Profit Function Analysis
Empirical studies on gender and agricultural productivity are typically based on production function estimates of a single crop or aggregate output, ignoring the role of prices and endogeneity of input choice. We apply the profit function approach to farm-level data from Ethiopia to compare supply response between male and female farmers, incorporating the full range of crops and prices and non-price incentives. Gender-differential in labor productivity is accounted for by including separate variables for adult male and female labor as well as child labor. We find that women respond to price incentives as strongly as men farmers do, but responsiveness largely depends on the type of crops and the relative importance of binding constraints. In contrast to price responses, differences in the non-price effects are not qualitatively different between the two groups, with location-specific factors soliciting significantly larger share of output response than household-specific factors. The data shows that female-headed farmers are more likely to be asset-poor subsistence farmers living in climatically less favored areas; consequently, constrained by limited access to better quality land, male labor and animal traction to diversify into high-yielding fertilizer-intensive food crops. Gender-targeted interventions that explicitly address low endowment of capital by women are likely to pay-off, as well as technologies that improve the productivity of land and labor. Well-integrated pro-poor policies that facilitate access to basic physical capital and credit are equally important. Our findings suggest that broad-based price and fertilizer policies are unlikely to be optimal, as they do not target the prevailing crop and agro-climatic mixes. Broad-based infrastructure and market access policies, on the other hand, are more likely to benefit all farmers.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2004|
|Date of revision:||Aug 2004|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 9 Mappin Street, SHEFFIELD, S1 4DT|
Phone: +44 114 222 3399
Fax: + 44 (0)114 222 3458
Web page: http://www.shef.ac.uk/economics
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Savadogo, Kimseyinga & Reardon, Thomas & Pietola, Kyosti, 1995. "Mechanization and Agricultural Supply Response in the Sahel: A Farm-Level Profit Function Analysis," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 4(3), pages 336-77, December.
- Suleiman Abrar & Oliver Morrissey & Tony Rayner, 2004. "Aggregate agricultural supply response in Ethiopia: a farm-level analysis," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(4), pages 605-620.
- Suleiman Abrar & Oliver Morrissey & Tony Rayner, 2004. "Crop-Level Supply Response by Agro-Climatic Region in Ethiopia," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 289-311.
- Evers, Barbara & Walters, Bernard, 2000. "Extra-Household Factors and Women Farmers' Supply Response in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1341-1345, July.
- Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
- Jacoby, Hanan G., 1991. "Productivity of men and women and the sexual division of labor in peasant agriculture of the Peruvian Sierra," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 265-287, November.
- Warner, James M. & Campbell, D. A., 2000. "Supply Response in an Agrarian Economy with Non-Symmetric Gender Relations," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1327-1340, July.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R., 1996. "Male-female differences in agricultural productivity: Methodological issues and empirical evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(10), pages 1579-1595, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:shf:wpaper:2004007. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jacob Holmes)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.