The Politics of Social Protection: Social Expenditure versus Markets' Regulation
Recently, it has been argued that the notion of a European social model is misleading and that there are in fact different European social models with different features and different performances in terms of efficiency and equity. In this paper, we look at the welfare state from a political economy point of view and interpret the different regimes as possible outcomes of a political process through which votersâ€™ heterogeneous preferences are aggregated. In our model, agents differ in two respects: income and socioeconomic vulnerability. Policy-makers must decide on two policies: a proportional income tax to finance a social transfer, providing equal benefits to all citizens, and a market regulation policy which benefits only vulnerable workers, providing them with additional protection against unemployment risk. Market regulation is inefficient since it decreases aggregate resources. Individualsâ€™ heterogeneity generates a conflict over policies. We feature the political process as a two-party electoral competition in a citizen-candidate model with probabilistic voting. We show that an inefficient equilibrium exists and this outcome is more likely the greater are income inequality and the proportion of vulnerable workers. Intuitively, greater inequality raises the level of redistributive spending desired by the poor, making, at the same time, the rich more adverse to the welfare state. In this framework, both the rich and the poor, in order to win the election and realize the fiscal gain, have an incentive to support market restrictions, in the attempt to capture the votes of the vulnerable minority, who benefit from these policies.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Via Del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Roma|
Phone: +39 6 49766353
Fax: +39 6 4462040
Web page: http://www.dipecodir.it/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrew E. Clark & Fabien Postel-Vinay, 2004.
"Job security and job protection,"
DELTA Working Papers
2004-16, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Andrew Clark & Fabien Postel-Vinay, 2005. "Job security and job protection," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19904, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Andrew Clark & Fabien Postel-Vinay, 2005. "Job Security and Job Protection," CEP Discussion Papers dp0678, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Andrew E. Clark & Fabien Postel-Vinay, 2009. "Job security and job protection," Post-Print halshs-00754384, HAL.
- Clark, Andrew E. & Postel-Vinay, Fabien, 2005. "Job Security and Job Protection," IZA Discussion Papers 1489, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Clark, Andrew E & Postel-Vinay, Fabien, 2005. "Job Security and Job Protection," CEPR Discussion Papers 4927, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Besley, Timothy J. & Coate, Stephen, 2000.
"Elected Versus Appointed Regulators: Theory And Evidence,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Timothy Besley & Stephen Coate, 2003. "Elected Versus Appointed Regulators: Theory and Evidence," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(5), pages 1176-1206, 09.
- Stephen Coate & Timothy Besley, 2000. "Elected versus Appointed Regulators: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7579, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bruno Amable & Donatella Gatti, 2005.
"The political economy of job protection and income redistribution,"
PSE Working Papers
- Amable, Bruno & Gatti, Donatella, 2004. "The Political Economy of Job Protection and Income Redistribution," IZA Discussion Papers 1404, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gilat Levy, 2004.
"A model of political parties,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
540, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Stephen Nickell & Luca Nunziata & Wolfgang Ochel, 2005. "Unemployment in the OECD Since the 1960s. What Do We Know?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(500), pages 1-27, 01.
- Fernández, Raquel & Levy, Gilat, 2008.
"Diversity and redistribution,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 925-943, June.
- Raquel Fernández & Gilat Levy, 2005. "Diversity and redistribution," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 544, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Raquel Fernández & Gilat Levy, 2005. "Diversity and Redistribution," NBER Working Papers 11570, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philippe Aghion & Philippe Askenazy & Renaud Bourlès & Gilbert Cette & Nicolas Dromel, 2009.
"Education, Market Rigidities and Growth,"
Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers)
- Aghion, Philippe & Askenazy, Philippe & Bourlès, Renaud & Cette, Gilbert & Dromel, Nicolas, 2007. "Education, Market Rigidities and Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 3166, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Aghion, Ph. & Askenazy, Ph. & Bourlès, R. & Cette, G. & Dromel, N., 2009. "Education, Market Rigidities and Growth," Working papers 229, Banque de France.
- Lilia Costabile, 2009. "Institutions for Social Well-Being: The Author’s Reply," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 3, August.
- Roemer, John E., 1998. "Why the poor do not expropriate the rich: an old argument in new garb," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 399-424, December.
- Fiori, Giuseppe & Nicoletti, Giuseppe & Scarpetta, Stefano & Schiantarelli, Fabio, 2007.
"Employment Outcomes and the Interaction Between Product and Labor Market Deregulation: Are They Substitutes or Complements?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2770, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Giuseppe Fiori & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2007. "Employment Outcomes and the Interaction Between Product and Labor Market Deregulation: Are They Substitutes or Complements?," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 663, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 08 Aug 2008.
- D'Orlando, Fabio & Ferrante, Francesco, 2009.
"The demand for job protection: Some clues from behavioural economics,"
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics),
Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 104-114, January.
- Fabio D'Orlando & Francesco Ferrante, 2008. "The Demand for Job Protection. Some Clues from Behavioural Economics," Working Papers 2008-04, Universita' di Cassino, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche.
- Wright, Randall, 1986. "The redistributive roles of unemployment insurance and the dynamics of voting," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 377-399, December.
- Olivier Blanchard & Jean Tirole, 2004. "The Optimal Design of Unemployment Insurance and Employment Protection. A First Pass," NBER Working Papers 10443, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gilles Saint-Paul, 2002.
"The Political Economy of Employment Protection,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(3), pages 672-701, June.
- Gilles Saint Paul, 1999. "The political economy of employment protection," Economics Working Papers 355, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Saint-Paul, Gilles, 1999. "The Political Economy of Employment Protection," CEPR Discussion Papers 2109, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Juan C. Botero & Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2004.
"The Regulation of Labor,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 119(4), pages 1339-1382.
- Juan Botero & Simeon Djankov & Rafael LaPorta & Florencio López-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, . "The Regulation of Labor," Working Paper 19483, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Juan Botero, 2003. "The Regulation of Labor," NBER Working Papers 9756, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martin J. Osborne, 1995. "Spatial Models of Political Competition under Plurality Rule: A Survey of Some Explanations of the Number of Candidates and the Positions They Take," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 261-301, May.
- Paul Conway & Véronique Janod & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2005. "Product Market Regulation in OECD Countries: 1998 to 2003," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 419, OECD Publishing.
- Timothy Besley & Stephen Coate, 1997. "An Economic Model of Representative Democracy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 85-114.
- Cusack, Thomas R. & Iversen, Torben & Rehm, Philipp, 2005. "Risks at work: the demand and supply sides of government redistribution," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Institutions, States, Markets SP II 2005-15, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sap:wpaper:wp116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Luisa Giuriato)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.