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Back from Beyond the Bid-Ask Spread: Perspectives on Liquidity

  • Gianluca Marcato

    ()

    (Department of Real Estate & Planning, University of Reading)

  • Charles Ward

    ()

    (ICMA Centre, University of Reading)

Research into the topic of liquidity has greatly benefited from the availability of data. Although bid-ask spreads were inaccessible to researchers, Roll (1984) provided a conceptual model that estimated the effective bid-ask prices from regular time series data, recorded on a daily or longer interval. Later data availability improved and researchers were able to address questions regarding the factors that influenced the spreads and the relationship between spreads and risk, return and liquidity. More recently transaction data have been used to measure the effective spread and researchers have been able to refine the concepts of liquidity to include the impact of transactions on price movements (Clayton and McKinnon, 2000) on a trade-by-trade analysis. This paper aims to use techniques that combine elements from all three approaches and, by studying US data over a relatively long time period, to throw light on earlier research as well as to reveal the changes in liquidity over the period controlling for extraneous factors such as market, age and size of REIT. It also reveals some comparable results for the UK market over the same period.

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Paper provided by Henley Business School, Reading University in its series Real Estate & Planning Working Papers with number rep-wp2006-15.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:rdg:repxwp:rep-wp2006-15
Contact details of provider: Postal: PO Box 218, Whiteknights, Reading, Berks, RG6 6AA
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Web page: http://www.henley.reading.ac.uk/

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  1. Harris, Lawrence, 1990. " Statistical Properties of the Roll Serial Covariance Bid/Ask Spread Estimator," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 579-90, June.
  2. Brian D. Kluger & Norman G. Miller, 1990. "Measuring Residential Real Estate Liquidity," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(2), pages 145-159.
  3. Acharya, Viral V. & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2005. "Asset pricing with liquidity risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 375-410, August.
  4. Dennis R. Capozza & Patric H. Hendershott & Charlotte Mack, 2004. "An Anatomy of Price Dynamics in Illiquid Markets: Analysis and Evidence from Local Housing Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(1), pages 1-32, 03.
  5. Holthausen, Robert W. & Leftwich, Richard W. & Mayers, David, 1987. "The effect of large block transactions on security prices: A cross-sectional analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 237-267, December.
  6. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2000. "Commonality in liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 3-28, April.
  7. Stoll, Hans R, 1989. " Inferring the Components of the Bid-Ask Spread: Theory and Empirical Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 115-34, March.
  8. Edward F. Nelling & James M. Mahoney & Terry L. Hildebrand & Michael A. Goldstein, 1995. "Real Estate Investment Trusts, Small Stocks and Bid-ask Spreads," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 45-63.
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  11. Lawrence R. Glosten & Paul R. Milgrom, 1983. "Bid, Ask and Transaction Prices in a Specialist Market with Heterogeneously Informed Traders," Discussion Papers 570, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  12. Bollerslev, Tim & Melvin, Michael, 1994. "Bid--ask spreads and volatility in the foreign exchange market : An empirical analysis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 355-372, May.
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  14. Chan, Louis K C & Lakonishok, Josef, 1997. " Institutional Equity Trading Costs: NYSE versus Nasdaq," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 713-35, June.
  15. Bessembinder, Hendrik & Kaufman, Herbert M., 1997. "A Comparison of Trade Execution Costs for NYSE and NASDAQ-Listed Stocks," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(03), pages 287-310, September.
  16. Clark, Peter K, 1973. "A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(1), pages 135-55, January.
  17. Huang, Roger D. & Stoll, Hans R., 1996. "Dealer versus auction markets: A paired comparison of execution costs on NASDAQ and the NYSE," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 313-357, July.
  18. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
  19. Boothe, Paul M, 1988. "Exchange Rate Risk and the Bid-Ask Spread: A Seven Country Comparison," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(3), pages 485-92, July.
  20. Jim Clayton & Greg MacKinnon, 2000. "Measuring and Explaining Changes in REIT Liquidity: Moving Beyond the Bid-Ask Spread," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 28(1), pages 89-115.
  21. Karpoff, Jonathan M., 1987. "The Relation between Price Changes and Trading Volume: A Survey," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(01), pages 109-126, March.
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