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Changes in REIT Liquidity 1988–2007: Evidence from Daily Data

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  • Susanne Cannon

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  • Rebel Cole

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Abstract

In this study, we present panel-data evidence on REIT liquidity and its determinants over the 1988 – 2007 period. We focus upon liquidity measures that do not require micro-structure data (1) to facilitate use of our results as benchmarks for comparisons with results from international markets for which micro-structure data may be unavailable, (2) to provide benchmarks that do not require access to costly (and voluminous) micro-structure data. We find that REIT liquidity improved during the early and mid-1990s, deteriorated during the late 1990s, and then improved dramatically during 2000 – 2006, with the notable exception of 2007. Liquidity improved the most for REITs traded on the NYSE, and was an order of magnitude better than liquidity of REITs traded on the AMEX or NASDAQ. We link the deterioration in liquidity observed in 2007 to the investment portfolio of a REIT. We find that the percentage bid-ask spread is highly correlated with the measure of price impact proposed by Amihud (2002). We provide panel-data evidence on the key determinants of the percentage bid-ask spread that largely confirms the results reported by Bhasin, Cole and Kiely (1997) for 1990 and 1994: the percentage spread is a positive function of the volatility of stock returns, and a negative function of dollar volume turnover, share price and market capitalization. Finally, we provide evidence that these results obtained using daily closing bid- and ask-prices are not qualitatively different from those obtained using market micro-structure data. This suggests that we can use liquidity measures based upon readily available daily return data rather than being forced to rely upon market micro-structure data.
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Suggested Citation

  • Susanne Cannon & Rebel Cole, 2011. "Changes in REIT Liquidity 1988–2007: Evidence from Daily Data," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 258-280, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jrefec:v:43:y:2011:i:1:p:258-280
    DOI: 10.1007/s11146-010-9270-3
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bond, Shaun A. & Chang, Qingqing, 2012. "Liquidity dynamics across public and private markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1890-1910.
    2. Benjamin Blau & Jared F. Egginton & Matthew Hill, 2016. "REITs and market friction," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 1-24, January.
    3. John Cotter & Stuart Gabriel & Richard Roll, 2015. "Can Housing Risk Be Diversified? A Cautionary Tale from the Housing Boom and Bust," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(3), pages 913-936.
    4. Paul Goebel & David Harrison & Jeffrey Mercer & Ryan Whitby, 2013. "REIT Momentum and Characteristic-Related REIT Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 564-581, October.
    5. Huang, MeiChi & Wu, Chih-Chiang & Liu, Shih-Min & Wu, Chang-Che, 2016. "Facts or fates of investors' losses during crises? Evidence from REIT-stock volatility and tail dependence structures," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 54-71.
    6. Driessen, Joost & Van Hemert, Otto, 2012. "Pricing of commercial real estate securities during the 2007–2009 financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 37-61.
    7. Cheung, William Mingyan & Chung, Richard & Fung, Scott, 2015. "The effects of stock liquidity on firm value and corporate governance: Endogeneity and the REIT experiment," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 211-231.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bid-ask spread; Depth; Liquidity; Price impact; REIT;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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